Local Proinflammatory Effects of Repeated Skin Exposure to Warfarin, An Anticoagulant Rodenticide in Rats
- Rats /
- Warfarin /
- Epicutaneous exposure /
- Tissue damage /
- Skin inflammation
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effects of epicutaneous application of anticoagulant warfarin, by examining the presence of tissue injury and immune/inflammatory activity in exposed skin. Methods: Rats were exposed to warfarin by applying 10 μg of warfarin-sodium to 10-12 cm<'2> skin (range 0.8-1 μg per 1 cm<'2>) for 3 consecutive days. Tissue injury was evaluated by lipid peroxidation, histomorphological changes and signs of reparative activity in skin. T cell infiltration and selected aspects of epidermal cell activity were examined as indicators of immune/inflammatory skin response to warfarin application. Results: Repeated warfarin application exerted no effect on skin metabolic viability, but resulted in tissue injury (increased malondialdehyde, MDA, production, evident histo-morphological changes in epidermis and dermis depicting cell injury and death). Increased numbers of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA<'+>) cells indicated reparative processes in injured skin. Infiltration of CD3<'+> cells (T lymphocytes) along with the increased production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by epidermal cells from warfarin-treated skin and their co-stimulatory effect in an in vitro T-cell activation assay demonstrated immunomodulatory effects of epicutaneous warfarin. Conclusion: Presented data have documented tissue damage associated with immune/ inflammatory activity in skin exposed to warfarin. Observed effects are relevant to immunotoxic potential of this anticoagulant in settings of external exposure.
|Citation:||Aleksandra POPOV, Ivana MIRKOV, Lidija ZOLOTAREVSKI, Milena JOVIC, Sandra BELIJ, Dragan KATARANOVSKI, Milena KATARANOVSKI. Local Proinflammatory Effects of Repeated Skin Exposure to Warfarin, An Anticoagulant Rodenticide in Rats[J]. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 2011, 24(2): 180-189. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.013|