Vascular and Morphogenetic Abnormalities Associated with Exposure of Cigarette Smoke Condensate during Chicken and Murine Embryogenesis
Abstract: Objective Embryonic movements (EM) and angiogenesis pathways are evolutionarily conserved mechanisms which are essential for proper embryonic development. Deviations in these processes by exposure to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC)may cause vascular and morphogenetic disorders. Methods Using chicken and mouse embryos, we have demonstrated the in vivo effects of CSC on EM, vascular development, and organogenesis. Results Examination of the CSC exposed chicken embryos revealed a significant reduction in EM, stunted growth, deviated pattern of blood vessels, hemorrhages, and localized necrosis. Likewise, mouse embryos that were exposed to CSC at E8.5 and E9.5 died between El 1.5 and E12.5, respectively.These mouse embryos showed defects in morphogenesis and remodeling of the embryonic vasculature, while littermate controls showed normal development.Conclusion Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is fatal for growing embryos. CSC may induce the remodeling of embryonic vasculature, leading to various pathologies.
|SOHAIL EJAZ, AHMED EJAZ, AMARA SOHAIL, CHAN WOONG LIM. Vascular and Morphogenetic Abnormalities Associated with Exposure of Cigarette Smoke Condensate during Chicken and Murine Embryogenesis[J]. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 2010, 23(4): 305-311.