Objective Several COVID-19 patients have overlapping comorbidities. The independent role of each component contributing to the risk of COVID-19 is unknown, and how some non-cardiometabolic comorbidities affect the risk of COVID-19 remains unclear. Methods A retrospective follow-up design was adopted. A total of 1,160 laboratory-confirmed patients were enrolled from nine provinces in China. Data on comorbidities were obtained from the patients’ medical records. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of the associations between comorbidities (cardiometabolic or non-cardiometabolic diseases), clinical severity, and treatment outcomes of COVID-19. Results Overall, 158 (13.6%) patients were diagnosed with severe illness and 32 (2.7%) had unfavorable outcomes. Hypertension (2.87, 1.30–6.32), type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (3.57, 2.32–5.49), cardiovascular disease (CVD) (3.78, 1.81–7.89), fatty liver disease (7.53, 1.96–28.96), hyperlipidemia (2.15, 1.26–3.67), other lung diseases (6.00, 3.01–11.96), and electrolyte imbalance (10.40, 3.00–26.10) were independently linked to increased odds of being severely ill. T2DM (6.07, 2.89–12.75), CVD (8.47, 6.03–11.89), and electrolyte imbalance (19.44, 11.47–32.96) were also strong predictors of unfavorable outcomes. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease on admission (5.46, 3.25–9.19), while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes (6.58, 1.46–29.64) within two weeks. Conclusion Besides hypertension, diabetes, and CVD, fatty liver disease, hyperlipidemia, other lung diseases, and electrolyte imbalance were independent risk factors for COVID-19 severity and poor treatment outcome. Women with comorbidities were more likely to have severe disease, while men with comorbidities were more likely to have unfavorable treatment outcomes.
Objective Here we aimed to investigate the difference in clinical characteristics and outcomes between pediatric and adult patients with COVID-19.Methods A total of 333 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated in the departments of Internal medicine of Shenzhen Third People's Hospital from January 11th to February 10th, 2020 were included. The data were obtained from electronic medical records. The epidemiological data, clinical characteristics, length of hospital stays, and outcomes of pediatric and adult patients were compared.Results Compared with adult patients, pediatric patients had a shorter time of symptom onset to hospitalization than adults [median time, 1 (IQR, 1.0–1.0) d vs. 3 (IQR, 2.0–6.0) d, P < 0.001], milder or fewer symptoms, less severe chest CT findings. The clinical severity classification of children was less severe than adults. Up to 15th March, the end of the follow-up, 33 (100%) children and 292 (97.3%) adult patients had been discharged from hospital. Only 2 (0.7%) adult patients died, with an overall case mortality of 0.6%. The median length of hospital stay of pediatric patients was shorter than that of adult patients [19 (95% CI: 16.6–21.4) d vs. 21 (95% CI: 19.9–22.1) d, P = 0.024].Conclusion Pediatric patients with COVID-19 had milder or less clinical symptoms, less evident pulmonary imaging changes, better prognosis, and shorter length of hospital stay.
Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the macrolide resistance rate and molecular type with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) of Mycoplasma pneumoniae of Beijing in 2016 in pediatric patients.Methods Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify M. pneumoniae, and MLVA was performed. The domain V of the 23S rRNA was sequenced to detect macrolide-resistant point mutations. We also investigated the activities of antibiotics against M. pneumoniae isolates in vitro.Results The PCR detection rate of M. pneumoniae in children in Beijing was 40%, and the macrolide resistance rate was 66%. The A2063G mutation in the 23S rRNA V region is the dominant mutation (137/146, 93.84%), whereas the A2064G mutation is rare (9/146, 6.16%). Seventy-three samples were typed successfully by MLVA typing, including 86.3% (63/73) were MLVA type 4-5-7-2, and 13.7% (10/73) were MLVA type 3-5-6-2. No other types were found. No strains were resistant to levofloxacin or tetracycline.Conclusion In 2016, a specific decrease in the macrolide resistance rate occurred in Beijing. The detection rate and macrolide resistance rate of outpatients are lower than those of inpatients. The A2063G mutants M. pneumoniae have high levels of resistance to erythromycin and azithromycin. The primary MLVA type is 4-5-7-2, followed by 3-5-6-2. No other MLVA types were detected. No strains resistant to tetracycline or levofloxacin were found in vitro.