2015 Vol. 28, No. 6
Methods A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using stratified cluster sampling. Participants’ blood pressure was measured, and their parents completed a questionnaire on personal and family characteristics. Prevalence and correlates of EBP were assessed.
Results Among a total of 24,333 participants, 20.2% of boys and 16.3% of girls had EBP. The prevalence of EBP increased with the ascending trend of waist circumference, Waist-to-height ratio, and body mass index. The adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for obese boys and girls were 2.50 and 2.97, respectively. Fewer urban boys (16.2%) had EBP than rural boys (21.7%). Boys with a family history of hypertension were 12%more likely to have EBP. Children whose mothers received a college education tended to have lower likelihood of EBP;with an aPR was 0.85 among boys and 0.78 among girls.
Conclusion EBP is common among obese students and those who have a family history of hypertension. A negative association between mothers’ education levels and EBP risk in children was found.
Methods A log-quadratic model is applied to under-fifteen data. We analyze and compare the average relative errors (AREs) for 1q0 between the estimated and reported values using the leave-one-out cross-validation method.
Results For the sixth census, the AREs are more than 100% for almost all provinces. The estimated average 1q0 level for 31 provinces is 12.3‰for males and 10.7‰for females.
Conclusion The data for the provincial 1q0 from China’s sixth census have a serious data quality problem. The actual levels of 1q0 for each province are significantly higher than the reported values.
Methods A prospective cohort study of newly registered patients in tuberculosis (TB) dispensaries in six representative Chinese provinces was conducted from September 1, 2009 to August 31, 2011. Risk factors for TB-associated death were identified through logistic regression analysis.
Results Of 19,103 newly registered pulmonary TB patients, 925 (4.8%) were found to be HIV-positive. Miliary TB and acid-fast bacillus smear-negative TB were more common among these patients. Out of a total of 322 (1.7%) deaths that occurred during TB treatment, 85 (26%) of the patients were co-infected with HIV. Multivariate analysis revealed that HIV infection was the strongest predictor of death [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.86]. Other significant mortality risk factors included presentation with miliary TB (aOR 4.10; 95% confidence interval: 2.14-7.88), ≥35 years of age (aOR 3.04), non-Han ethnicity (aOR 1.67), and farming as an occupation (aOR 1.59). For patients with TB/HIV co-infection, miliary TB was the strongest risk factor for death (aOR 5.48). A low CD4 count (≤200 cells/μL) (aOR 3.27) at the time of TB treatment initiation and a lack of antiretroviral therapy (ART) administration (aOR 3.78) were also correlated with an increased risk of death.
Conclusion Infection with HIV was independently associated with increased mortality during TB treatment. Offering HIV testing at the time of diagnosis with TB, early TB diagnosis among HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, and the timely provision of ART were identified as the key approaches that could reduce the number of HIV-associated TB deaths.
Methods A cross-sectional, anonymous, investigative questionnaire for 1710 unmarried, out-of-school rural youth, aged between 15 and 24 years, was handed out in Gongzhuling county of Jilin province, China.
Results 58.5%of participants had a history of migration, irrespective of gender. There were gender differences observed in other factors such as drug abuse (4.3%for males and 5.5%for females, P<0.01), multiple sexual partners (24.1% for males and 44.1% for females, P<0.01), and HIV knowledge rate (35.2%for males and 25.5%for females, P<0.001). While controlling for gender, age, and educational levels, the relationships between migration and drug abuse, selling sex, and non usage of condoms during last instance of sexual activity were found to be significant. The cases of premarital sex and multiple sexual partners were both not found to be related to migration.
Conclusion Among rural youth, the HIV risky behavior such as drug abuse, selling sex, and lack of condom use, is significantly related to migration, while premarital sex and multiple sexual partners seem unrelated to migration.
Methods We isolated and characterized of bacterial strains from ATCC and water samples strains, while we analyzed data from SERS technology using gold nanoparticles as a base and cell infections were employed to rapidly detect L. pneumophila strains. Origin 8.0 was used to collect Raman spectra, smooth and homogenize data, and to contrast spectra. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to discriminate differences between groups using the multivariate analysis package PyChem 3.0.5.
Results Our results indicated that the peaks of high virulence strains reached≥4000. This criterion was verified by subsequent cell experiments. In addition, we also conducted SERS rapid identification on the virulence of several collected clinical strains and obtained accurate results.
Conclusion The present study indicates that the established SERS protocol can be used as a rapid and reliable method to distinguish virulent and mildly virulent strains of L. pneumophila, which can be further used in clinical samples.