2016 Vol. 29, No. 7

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C-reactive Protein Level, Apolipoprotein B-to-apolipoprotein A-1 Ratio, and Risks of Ischemic Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease among Inner Mongolians in China
TIAN Yun Fan, ZHOU Yi Peng, ZHONG Chong Ke, BUREN Batu, XU Tian, LI Hong Mei, ZHANG Ming Zhi, WANG Ai Li, ZHANG Yong Hong
2016, 29(7): 467-474. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.062
Objective We aimed to investigate the cumulative effect of high CRP level and apolipoprotein B-to-apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoB/ApoA-1) ratio on the incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) or coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Mongolian population in China.
Methods From June 2003 to July 2012, 2589 Mongolian participants were followed up for IS and CHD events based on baseline investigation. All the participants were divided into four subgroups according to C-reactive protein (CRP) level and ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the IS and CHD events in all the subgroups.
Results The HRs (95% CI) for IS and CHD were 1.33 (0.84-2.12), 1.14 (0.69-1.88), and 1.91 (1.17-3.11) in the ‘low CRP level with high ApoB/ApoA-1’, ‘high CRP level with low ApoB/ApoA-1’, and ‘high CRP level with high ApoB/ApoA-1’ subgroups, respectively, in comparison with the ‘low CRP level with low ApoB/ApoA-1’ subgroup. The risks of IS and CHD events was highest in the ‘high CRP level with high ApoB/ApoA-1’ subgroup, with statistical significance.
Conclusion High CRP level with high ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio was associated with the highest risks of IS and CHD in the Mongolian population. This study suggests that the combination of high CRP and ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio may improve the assessment of future risk of developing IS and CHD in the general population.
Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics and Coronary Artery Calcification in Northern Chinese Population:A Cross-sectional Study
LUO Tai Yang, LIU Xiao Hui, DAI Tian Yi, LIU Xin Min, ZHANG Qian, DONG Jian Zeng
2016, 29(7): 475-483. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.063
Objective Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a well-established risk predictor of coronary heart disease events and is recognized as an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis.
Methods A cross-sectional study consisting of 2999 participants aged ≥40 years from the Jidong community of Tangshan City, an industrial and modern city of China, was conducted between 2013 and 2014 to examine the association between the ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and CAC. The ideal CVH metrics were determined based on the definition of the American Heart Association (AHA). The participants were then grouped into 4 categories according to the quartiles of their CVH metric scores as follows: first quartile (0-2), second quartile (3), third quartile (4), and fourth quartile (5-7). CAC was assessed by using high-pitch dual-source CT, and patients were identified based on thresholds of 0, 10, 100, or 400 Agatston units, as per common practice.
Results The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was 15.92%, 13.85%, 6.76%, and 1.93%, determined by using the CAC scores at thresholds of 0, 10, 100, and 400 Agatston units, respectively. Compared with the group in the first quartile, the other three CVH groups had a lower odds ratio of CAC>0 after adjusting for age, sex, income level, education level, and alcohol use in the logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios in these groups were 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-1.17; P<0.05], 0.75 (95% CI, 0.55-1.02; P<0.05), and 0.49 (95% CI, 0.35-0.69; P<0.05), respectively. These associations of CAC with the CVH metrics were consistent when different CAC cutoff scores were used (0, 10, 100, or 400).
Conclusion The participants with more-ideal cardiovascular metrics had a lower prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis determined according to CAC score. Maintaining an ideal cardiovascular health may be valuable in the prevention of atherosclerosis in the general population.
p21 is Responsible for Ionizing Radiation-induced Bypass of Mitosis
ZHANG Xu Rui, LIU Yong Ai, SUN Fang, LI He, LEI Su Wen, WANG Ju Fang
2016, 29(7): 484-493. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.064
Objective To explore the role of p21 in ionizing radiation-induced changes in protein levels during the G2/M transition and long-term G2 arrest.
Methods Protein expression levels were assessed by western blot in the human uveal melanoma 92-1 cells after treatment with ionizing radiation. Depletion of p21 was carried out by employing the siRNA technique. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry combined with histone H3 phosphorylation at Ser28, an M-phase marker. Senescence was assessed by senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining combined with Ki67 staining, a cell proliferation marker.
Results Accompanying increased p21, the protein levels of G2/M transition genes declined significantly in 92-1 cells irradiated with 5 Gy of X-rays. Furthermore, these irradiated cells were blocked at the G2 phase followed by cellular senescence. Depletion of p21 rescued radiation-induced G2 arrest as demonstrated by the upregulation of G2/M transition kinases, as well as the high expression of histone H3 phosphorylated at Ser28. Knockdown of p21 resulted in entry into mitosis of irradiated 92-1 cells. However, cells with serious DNA damage failed to undergo cytokinesis, leading to the accumulation of multinucleated cells.
Conclusion Our results indicated that p21 was responsible for the downregulation of G2/M transition regulatory proteins and the bypass of mitosis induced by irradiation. Downregulation of p21 by siRNA resulted in G2-arrested cells entering into mitosis with serious DNA damage. This is the first report on elucidating the role of p21 in the bypass of mitosis.
Autophagy Attenuates MnCl2-induced Apoptosis in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells
YUAN Zhun, YING Xian Ping, ZHONG Wei Jian, TIAN Shi Min, WANG Yu, JIA Yong Rui, CHEN Wen, FU Juan Ling, ZHAO Peng, ZHOU Zong Can
2016, 29(7): 494-504. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.065
Objective To investigate the role of autophagy in MnCl2-induced apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells.
Methods Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. Autophagic vacuoles were detected by fluorescence microscopy. Cellular levels of apoptosis and autophagy-related proteins were measured by western blotting.
Results 16HBE cell proliferation was inhibited by MnCl2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MnCl2-induced 16HBE cell growth inhibition was related to MMP depolarization prior to the induction of apoptosis. Our data revealed that MnCl2-induced apoptosis in 16HBE cells was mediated by decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased levels of cleaved caspase-3. It was observed that when we exposed 16HBE cells to MnCl2 in a dose-dependent manner, the formation of autophagic vacuoles and the levels of LC-3B-II were elevated. RNA interference of LC3B in these MnCl2-exposed cells demonstrated that MMP loss and apoptosis were enhanced. Additionally, the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased the cellular levels of Bcl-2 and decreased apoptosis, but did not affect the cellular levels of LC3B in MnCl2-treated 16HBE cells.
Conclusion MnCl2 dose- and time-dependently inhibits 16HBE cell proliferation and induces MMP loss and apoptosis. Autophagy acts in a protective role against MnCl2-induced apoptosis in 16HBE cells.
Association of the ADIPOQ Rs2241766 and Rs266729 Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome in the Chinese Population:A Meta-analysis
ZHOU Jun Mei, ZHANG Ming, WANG Shu, WANG Bing Yuan, HAN Cheng Yi, REN Yong Cheng, ZHANG Lu, ZHANG Hong Yan, YANG Xiang Yu, ZHAO Yang, HU Dong Sheng
2016, 29(7): 505-515. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.066
Objective This meta-analysis was performed to summarize the association of the ADIPOQ rs2241766 and rs266729 polymorphisms with metabolic syndrome (MS) in the Chinese population.
Methods We searched for articles in MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, HuGE Navigator, CNKI, and Wanfang databases and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the strength of associations in fixed- or random-effects models.
Results We included 21 articles in the meta-analysis: 17 reports of ADIPOQ rs2241766 with 3628 cases and 3000 controls and 8 of rs266729 with 2021 cases and 2226 controls. We found an increased risk of MS with the ADIPOQ rs2241766 polymorphism in some genetic models (allele model: OR=1.12, 95% CI:1.03-1.21; dominant model: OR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.04-1.28; homozygote model: OR=1.22, 95% CI:1.00-1.49) but no association with the ADIPOQ rs266729 polymorphism (allele model: OR=0.98, 95% CI:0.82-1.17; dominant model: OR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.02; recessive model: OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.85-1.39;homozygote model: OR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.80-1.33).
Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest an association between the ADIPOQ rs2241766 polymorphism and MS in the Chinese population. G allele of ADIPOQ rs2241766 increases the risk of MS. Better designed studies with different ethnic populations and larger sample sizes are needed for assessing the relationship between ADIPOQ rs2241766 and rs266729 polymorphisms and MS in the future.
Lack of Association between rs4331426 Polymorphism in the Chr18q11.2 Locus and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an Iranian Population
Mohammad Naderi, Mohammad Hashemi, Gholamreza Bahari
2016, 29(7): 516-520. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.067
Objective The effect of rs4331426 polymorphism in the Chr18q11.2 locus on pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) risk was evaluated.
Methods This case-control study included 208 PTB patients and 204 healthy subjects. Genotyping of the rs4331426 variant was conducted using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Results The frequencies of genotypes AA, AG, and GG polymorphisms were 83.1%, 15.9%, and 1.0% in the PTB group and 84.3%, 15.2%, and 0.5% in the control group, respectively. The frequency of the minor (G) allele was 8.9% in the PTB group and 8.1% in controls. Neither genotype nor allele frequencies of the rs4331426 variant showed statistically significant differences between PTB and controls. In addition, stratification by sex showed no significant association between the rs4331426 variant and PTB risk in males or females.
Conclusion In conclusion, the results of this study do not support an association between the rs4331426 polymorphism and risk of PTB in an Iranian population.
Detection of Multi-drug Resistant Acinetobacter Lwoffii Isolated from Soil of Mink Farm
SUN Na, WEN Yong Jun, ZHANG Shu Qin, ZHU Hong Wei, GUO Li, WANG Feng Xue, CHEN Qiang, MA Hong Xia, CHENG Shi Peng
2016, 29(7): 521-523. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.068
Green Tea Polyphenols Alleviate Autophagy Inhibition Induced by High Glucose in Endothelial Cells
ZHANG Pi Wei, TIAN Chong, XU Fang Yi, CHEN Zhuo, Raynard BURNSIDE, YI Wei Jie, XIANG Si Yun, XIE Xiao, WU Nan Nan, YANG Hui, ZHAO Na Na, YE Xiao Lei, YING Chen Jiang
2016, 29(7): 524-528. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.069
Cytotoxic Responses and Apoptosis in Rat Kidney Epithelial Cells Exposed to Lead
HE Xiu Yuan, YUAN Li Yun, LI Yong Tao, LI Meng, CHEN Yuan, YUAN Hui, WU Jing, GUO Cheng Zhi, LI Jing
2016, 29(7): 529-533. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.070
Prevalence of High Non-high-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Associated Risk Factors in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus in Jilin Province, China:A Cross-sectional Study
HE Huan, ZHEN Qing, LI Yong, KOU Chang Gui, TAO Yu Chun, WANG Chang, JosepHSam Kanu, LU Yu Ping, YU Ming Xi, ZHANG Hui Ping, YU Ya Qin, LI Bo, LIU Ya Wen
2016, 29(7): 534-538. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.071
Exploring Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles Altered in Kashin-Beck Disease Using Infinium Human Methylation 450 Bead Chips
SHI Xiao Wei, SHI Bo Hui
2016, 29(7): 539-543. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.072