2016 Vol. 29, No. 7
Methods From June 2003 to July 2012, 2589 Mongolian participants were followed up for IS and CHD events based on baseline investigation. All the participants were divided into four subgroups according to C-reactive protein (CRP) level and ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the IS and CHD events in all the subgroups.
Results The HRs (95% CI) for IS and CHD were 1.33 (0.84-2.12), 1.14 (0.69-1.88), and 1.91 (1.17-3.11) in the ‘low CRP level with high ApoB/ApoA-1’, ‘high CRP level with low ApoB/ApoA-1’, and ‘high CRP level with high ApoB/ApoA-1’ subgroups, respectively, in comparison with the ‘low CRP level with low ApoB/ApoA-1’ subgroup. The risks of IS and CHD events was highest in the ‘high CRP level with high ApoB/ApoA-1’ subgroup, with statistical significance.
Conclusion High CRP level with high ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio was associated with the highest risks of IS and CHD in the Mongolian population. This study suggests that the combination of high CRP and ApoB/ApoA-1 ratio may improve the assessment of future risk of developing IS and CHD in the general population.
Methods A cross-sectional study consisting of 2999 participants aged ≥40 years from the Jidong community of Tangshan City, an industrial and modern city of China, was conducted between 2013 and 2014 to examine the association between the ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and CAC. The ideal CVH metrics were determined based on the definition of the American Heart Association (AHA). The participants were then grouped into 4 categories according to the quartiles of their CVH metric scores as follows: first quartile (0-2), second quartile (3), third quartile (4), and fourth quartile (5-7). CAC was assessed by using high-pitch dual-source CT, and patients were identified based on thresholds of 0, 10, 100, or 400 Agatston units, as per common practice.
Results The prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis was 15.92%, 13.85%, 6.76%, and 1.93%, determined by using the CAC scores at thresholds of 0, 10, 100, and 400 Agatston units, respectively. Compared with the group in the first quartile, the other three CVH groups had a lower odds ratio of CAC>0 after adjusting for age, sex, income level, education level, and alcohol use in the logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios in these groups were 0.86 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63-1.17; P<0.05], 0.75 (95% CI, 0.55-1.02; P<0.05), and 0.49 (95% CI, 0.35-0.69; P<0.05), respectively. These associations of CAC with the CVH metrics were consistent when different CAC cutoff scores were used (0, 10, 100, or 400).
Conclusion The participants with more-ideal cardiovascular metrics had a lower prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis determined according to CAC score. Maintaining an ideal cardiovascular health may be valuable in the prevention of atherosclerosis in the general population.
Methods Protein expression levels were assessed by western blot in the human uveal melanoma 92-1 cells after treatment with ionizing radiation. Depletion of p21 was carried out by employing the siRNA technique. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry combined with histone H3 phosphorylation at Ser28, an M-phase marker. Senescence was assessed by senescence-associated-β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining combined with Ki67 staining, a cell proliferation marker.
Results Accompanying increased p21, the protein levels of G2/M transition genes declined significantly in 92-1 cells irradiated with 5 Gy of X-rays. Furthermore, these irradiated cells were blocked at the G2 phase followed by cellular senescence. Depletion of p21 rescued radiation-induced G2 arrest as demonstrated by the upregulation of G2/M transition kinases, as well as the high expression of histone H3 phosphorylated at Ser28. Knockdown of p21 resulted in entry into mitosis of irradiated 92-1 cells. However, cells with serious DNA damage failed to undergo cytokinesis, leading to the accumulation of multinucleated cells.
Conclusion Our results indicated that p21 was responsible for the downregulation of G2/M transition regulatory proteins and the bypass of mitosis induced by irradiation. Downregulation of p21 by siRNA resulted in G2-arrested cells entering into mitosis with serious DNA damage. This is the first report on elucidating the role of p21 in the bypass of mitosis.
Methods Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry. Autophagic vacuoles were detected by fluorescence microscopy. Cellular levels of apoptosis and autophagy-related proteins were measured by western blotting.
Results 16HBE cell proliferation was inhibited by MnCl2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. MnCl2-induced 16HBE cell growth inhibition was related to MMP depolarization prior to the induction of apoptosis. Our data revealed that MnCl2-induced apoptosis in 16HBE cells was mediated by decreased expression of Bcl-2 and increased levels of cleaved caspase-3. It was observed that when we exposed 16HBE cells to MnCl2 in a dose-dependent manner, the formation of autophagic vacuoles and the levels of LC-3B-II were elevated. RNA interference of LC3B in these MnCl2-exposed cells demonstrated that MMP loss and apoptosis were enhanced. Additionally, the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK increased the cellular levels of Bcl-2 and decreased apoptosis, but did not affect the cellular levels of LC3B in MnCl2-treated 16HBE cells.
Conclusion MnCl2 dose- and time-dependently inhibits 16HBE cell proliferation and induces MMP loss and apoptosis. Autophagy acts in a protective role against MnCl2-induced apoptosis in 16HBE cells.
Methods We searched for articles in MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, HuGE Navigator, CNKI, and Wanfang databases and calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to determine the strength of associations in fixed- or random-effects models.
Results We included 21 articles in the meta-analysis: 17 reports of ADIPOQ rs2241766 with 3628 cases and 3000 controls and 8 of rs266729 with 2021 cases and 2226 controls. We found an increased risk of MS with the ADIPOQ rs2241766 polymorphism in some genetic models (allele model: OR=1.12, 95% CI:1.03-1.21; dominant model: OR=1.15, 95% CI: 1.04-1.28; homozygote model: OR=1.22, 95% CI:1.00-1.49) but no association with the ADIPOQ rs266729 polymorphism (allele model: OR=0.98, 95% CI:0.82-1.17; dominant model: OR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.02; recessive model: OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.85-1.39;homozygote model: OR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.80-1.33).
Conclusion The results of this meta-analysis suggest an association between the ADIPOQ rs2241766 polymorphism and MS in the Chinese population. G allele of ADIPOQ rs2241766 increases the risk of MS. Better designed studies with different ethnic populations and larger sample sizes are needed for assessing the relationship between ADIPOQ rs2241766 and rs266729 polymorphisms and MS in the future.
Methods This case-control study included 208 PTB patients and 204 healthy subjects. Genotyping of the rs4331426 variant was conducted using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Results The frequencies of genotypes AA, AG, and GG polymorphisms were 83.1%, 15.9%, and 1.0% in the PTB group and 84.3%, 15.2%, and 0.5% in the control group, respectively. The frequency of the minor (G) allele was 8.9% in the PTB group and 8.1% in controls. Neither genotype nor allele frequencies of the rs4331426 variant showed statistically significant differences between PTB and controls. In addition, stratification by sex showed no significant association between the rs4331426 variant and PTB risk in males or females.
Conclusion In conclusion, the results of this study do not support an association between the rs4331426 polymorphism and risk of PTB in an Iranian population.