Objective Liver fibrosis is an important predictor of mortality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Peripheral artery disease (PAD) and liver fibrosis share many common metabolic dysfunctions. We aimed to explore the association between PAD and risk of fibrosis deterioration in NAFLD patients.Methods The study recruited 1,610 NAFLD patients aged ≥ 40 years from a well-defined community at baseline in 2010 and followed up between August 2014 and May 2015. Fibrosis deterioration was defined as the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) status increased to a higher category at the follow-up visit. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index of < 0.90 or > 1.40.Results During an average of 4.3 years’ follow-up, 618 patients progressed to a higher NFS category. PAD was associated with 92% increased risk of fibrosis deterioration [multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24, 2.98]. When stratified by baseline NFS status, the OR for progression from low to intermediate or high NFS was 1.74 (95% CI: 1.02, 3.00), and progression from intermediate to high NFS was 2.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 4.80). There was a significant interaction between PAD and insulin resistance (IR) on fibrosis deterioration (P for interaction = 0.03). As compared with non-PAD and non-IR, the coexistence of PAD and IR was associated with a 3.85-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 7.18) increased risk of fibrosis deterioration.Conclusion PAD is associated with an increased risk of fibrosis deterioration in NAFLD patients, especially in those with IR. The coexistence of PAD and IR may impose an interactive effect on the risk of fibrosis deterioration.
Objective This study aimed to assess the association of waist circumference (WC) with all-cause mortality among Chinese adults.Methods The baseline data were from Shanxi Province of 2002 China Nutrition and Health Survey. The death investigation and follow-up visit were conducted from December 2015 to March 2016. The visits covered up to 5,360 of 7,007 participants, representing a response rate of 76.5%. The Cox regression model and floating absolute risk were used to estimate hazard ratio and 95% floating CI of death by gender and age groups (≥ 60 and < 60 years old). Sensitivity analysis was performed by excluding current smokers; participants with stroke, hypertension, and diabetes; participants who accidentally died; and participants who died during the first 2 years of follow-up.Results This study followed 67,129 person-years for 12.5 years on average, including 615 deaths. The mortality density was 916 per 100,000 person-years. Low WC was associated with all-cause mortality among men. Multifactor-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were 1.60 (1.35–1.90) for WC < 75.0 cm and 1.40 (1.11–1.76) for WC ranging from 75.0 cm to 79.9 cm. Low WC (< 70.0 cm and 70.0–74.9 cm) and high WC (≥ 95.0 cm) groups had a high risk of mortality among women. The adjusted HRs of death were 1.43 (1.11–1.83), 1.39 (1.05–1.84), and 1.91 (1.13–3.22).Conclusion WC was an important predictor of death independent of body mass index (BMI). WC should be used as a simple rapid screening and predictive indicator of the risk of death.
Objective This study aimed to explore the protective effect of procyanidin B2 (PCB2) on acute liver injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rats.Methods Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, AFB1, AFB1 + PCB2, and PCB2 groups. The latter two groups were administrated PCB2 intragastrically (30 mg/kg body weight) for 7 d, whereas the control and AFB1 groups were given the same dose of double distilled water intragastrically. On the sixth day of treatment, the AFB1 and AFB1 + PCB2 groups were intraperitoneally injected with AFB1 (2 mg/kg). The control and PCB2 groups were intraperitoneally administered the same dose of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). On the eighth day, all rats were euthanized: serum and liver tissue were isolated for further examination. Hepatic histological features were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Weight, organ coefficient (liver, spleen, and kidney), liver function (serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin), oxidative index (catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine), inflammation factor [hepatic interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression and serum IL-6], and bcl-2/bax ratio were measured.Results AFB1 significantly caused hepatic histopathological damage, abnormal liver function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and bcl-2/bax ratio reduction compared with DMSO-treated controls. Our results indicate that PCB2 treatment can partially reverse the adverse liver conditions induced by AFB1. Conclusion Our findings indicate that PCB2 exhibits a protective effect on acute liver injury induced by AFB1.
Objective Our objective was to investigate the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens and characterize the bacterial community structures in the water system of a pulmonary hospital.Methods The water samples were collected from automatic and manual faucets in the consulting room, treatment room, dressing room, respiratory ward, and other non-medical rooms in three buildings of the hospital. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the load of several waterborne opportunistic pathogens and related microorganisms, including Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and M. avium. Illumina sequencing targeting 16S rRNA genes was performed to profile bacterial communities.Results The occurrence rates of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., and M. avium were 100%, 100%, and 76%, respectively in all samples. Higher occurrence rates of M. avium were observed in the outpatient service building (building 1, 91.7%) and respiration department and wards (building 2, 80%) than in the office building (building 3), where no M. avium was found. M. avium were more abundant in automatic faucets (average 2.21 × 104 gene copies/L) than in manual faucets (average 1.03 × 104 gene copies/mL) (P < 0.01). Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Acidobacteria were the dominant bacterial phyla. Disinfectant residuals, nitrate, and temperature were found to be the key environmental factors driving microbial community structure shifts in water systems.Conclusion This study revealed a high level of colonization of water faucets by opportunistic pathogens and provided insight into the characteristics of microbial communities in a hospital water system and approaches to reduce risks of microbial contamination.
Objective To explore the association between soil selenium levels and the risk of diabetes in Chinese adults aged 35–74 years.Methods Data for this study were derived from the China Chronic Diseases and Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance 2010 survey. Selenium concentrations in soil were obtained from the Atlas of Soil Environmental Background Values in China. A two-level binary logistic regression model was used to determine the association between soil selenium concentrations and the risk of diabetes, with participants nested within districts/counties.Results A total of 69,332 participants aged 35–74 years, from 158 districts/counties were included in the analysis. Concentrations of selenium in soil varied greatly across the 158 districts/counties, with a median concentration of 0.219 mg/kg (IQR: 0.185–0.248). The results showed that both Quartile 1 (0.119–0.185 mg/kg) and Quartile 4 (0.249–0.344 mg/kg) groups were positively associated with diabetes compared to a soil selenium concentration of 0.186–0.219 mg/kg (Quartile 2), crude odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) were 1.227 (1.003–1.502) and 1.280 (1.048–1.563). The P values were 0.045 and 0.013, for Quartile 1 and Quartile 4 groups, respectively. After adjusting for all confounding factors of interest, the Quartile 1 group became non-significant, and the Quartile 4 group had an adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.203 (1.018–1.421) relative to the reference group (Quartile 2), the P values was 0.030. No significant results were seen for the Quartile 3 group (0.220–0.248 mg/kg) compared to the reference group.Conclusion Excessive selenium concentrations in soil could increase the risk of diabetes among Chinese adults aged 35–74 years.