Objective The aim of this study was to investigate macular perfusion changes and ganglion cell complex (GCC) loss in patients with unexplained visual loss following vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) tamponade, and to evaluate the correlation between retinal blood flow and GCC loss using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT).Methods This retrospective study included seven eyes (seven patients) with unexpected visual loss after vitrectomy and SO tamponade. OCTA was used to evaluate the alterations in retinal vessel density (VD) in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), and radial peripapillary capillary plexus (RPCP). OCT was used to measure the thickness of GCC and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Medical records of patients were reviewed.Results Quantitative analysis of OCTA images revealed a significant reduction in SCP VD in the affected eyes compared with the controls (all sections P < 0.05). No difference was found in GCC thickness, but FLV (focal loss volume) and GLV (global loss volume) were significantly higher in the affected eyes (both P < 0.001). SCP VD was inversely correlated with FLV and GLV.Conclusions Silicone oil-related severe visual loss was associated with superficial retinal microvasculature damage and ganglion cell apoptosis.
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-androgenic mechanism of cypermethrin involving coactivators.Methods Mammalian two-hybrid assays were performed to study the effects of cypermethrin on interactions of the androgen receptor (AR) with the coactivators androgen receptor-associated protein 70 (ARA70) and androgen receptor-associated protein 55 (ARA55).Results The results showed that AR–ARA70 and AR–ARA55 interactions were remarkably enhanced by dihydrotestosterone (DHT, P ≤ 0.05). Cypermethrin inhibited DHT-induced AR–ARA70 and AR–ARA55 interactions significantly (P ≤ 0.05).Conclusion The study indicates that cypermethrin exhibits inhibitory effects on AR transcription associated with repression of AR–ARA70 and AR–ARA55 interactions in a ligand-dependent manner. The data show novel anti-androgenic mechanisms of cypermethrin that contribute to male reproductive toxicology.
Objective To investigate whether exposure to particulate matter of diameter equal to or less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) alters the response of lung epithelial cells to extrinsic regulation by globally profiling cell surface ligands and quantifying their binding activity.Methods Human A549 lung epithelial cells (LECs) were treated with or without PM2.5. Ligandomic profiling was applied to these cells for the global identification of LEC-binding ligands with simultaneous quantification of binding activity. Quantitative comparisons of the entire ligandome profiles systematically identified ligands with increased or decreased binding to PM2.5-treated LECs.Results We found 143 ligands with increased binding to PM2.5-treated LECs and 404 ligands with decreased binding. Many other ligands showed no change in binding activity. For example, apolipoprotein E (ApoE), Notch2, and growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6) represent ligands with increased, decreased, or unchanged binding activity, respectively. Both ApoE and Gas6 are phagocytosis ligands, suggesting that phagocytic receptors on LECs after stimulation with PM2.5 were differentially upregulated by PM2.5.Conclusion These results suggest that the newly-developed ligandomics is a valuable approach to globally profile the response of LECs to PM2.5 in terms of regulating the expression of cell surface receptors, as quantified by ligand binding activity. This quantitative ligandome profiling will provide in-depth understanding of the LEC molecular response on the cell surface to particulate matter air pollution.
Objective To develop a rapid, highly sensitive quantitative method for detecting P24 antigen based on near-infrared fluorescent microsphere immunochromatography.Methods First, we prepared a lateral flow assay test strip, and labeled the detection antibody using a fluorescent microsphere. Second, we optimized the antibody labeling conditions. Third, we optimized the detection conditions. Fourth, we created a working curve. Fifth, we conducted a methodological assessment of the established fluorescent microsphere immunochromatography method. Sixty-six clinical samples were tested, and we compared the established fluorescent microsphere immunochromatography with the quantitative ELISA method.Results According to the working curve, the detection limit of the method is 3.4 pg/mL, and the detection range is 3.4 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL. The average intra-assay recovery was 99.6%, and the Coefficient of Variation (CV) was 5.4%–8.6%; the average inter-assay recovery was 97.3%, and the CV was 8.5%–11%. The detection rate of fluorescent microsphere immunochromatography was higher than ELISA method, and had a good correlation with ELISA.Conclusion The P24 antigen quantitative detection method based on near-infrared fluorescent microsphere immunochromatography has the advantages of rapid detection, high sensitivity, and wide detection range; thus, it is suitable for early clinical diagnosis and continuous monitoring of AIDS.
Objective Over the last century, a progressive rise in stature, known as the ‘secular trend’, was documented worldwide, and especially in Sardinia, it has reached a peak in Europe. However, this situation recently ceased in several populations. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the stature secular trend has significantly leveled off in the Sardinian younger generations.Methods Height measurements were retrieved from a database of patients undergoing digestive endoscopy, spanning generations between 1920 and 1990. Sex-specific principal component regression models were fitted to decompose stature variation into the contribution of age, period, and birth cohort.Results A steady increase in stature was observed in generations born after 1920, with an upward surge in those born after 1950. However, a significant leveling off was observed among cohorts born after 1970 among both sexes, as mean heights stabilized at 171.1 cm with a standard error (SE) of 0.9 cm among men and a mean of 160.1 cm (SE = 0.9 cm) among women.Conclusion Our findings support a significant slowdown in the secular trend of stature among the latest Sardinian generations. Several factors, including the consumption of low-quality food, lack of physical activity, and late motherhood, among others, may explain the decline in the secular trend.