2023 Vol. 36, No. 4

2023, 36(4)
2023, 36(4): 1-2.
Original Article
Effect of Age and Sex on Stroke Mortality of Young and Middle-aged Adults in China, 2002–2019, and Predictions to 2030
ZHAI Yi, SI Xiang, WANG Wen Zhi, ZHAO Wen Hua
2023, 36(4): 305-312. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.036
  Objective  This study aimed to examine the trends in stroke mortality among young and middle-aged adults in China.   Methods  Data were obtained from the China national vital registration system. Significant changes in mortality were assessed by Joinpoint regression. Age-period-cohort analysis was used to explain the reasons for the changes. Future mortality and counts were predicted by the Bayesian age-period-cohort model.   Results  Between 2002 and 2019, a total of 6,253,951 stroke mortality in young and middle-aged adults were recorded. The age-adjusted mortality rates (AAMRs) of women showed a downward trend. The annual percent changes (APC) were −3.5% (−5.2%, −1.7%) for urban women and −2.8% (−3.7%, −1.9%) for rural women. By contrast, the AAMRs per 100,000 for rural men aged 25–44 years continued to rise from 9.40 to 15.46. The AAMRS for urban men aged 25–44 years and urban and rural men aged 45–64 years did not change significantly. Between 2020 and 2030, the projected stroke deaths are 1,423,584 in men and 401,712 in women.   Conclusion  Significant sex and age disparities in the trends of stroke mortality among young and middle-aged adults were identified in China. Targeted health policy measures are needed to address the burden of stroke in the young generation, especially for rural men, with a focus on the prevention and management of high risk factors.
Geographic Variations in the Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Dyslipidemia among Chinese Adults in 2018–2019: A Cross-sectional Study
ZHANG Mei, PENG Ke, ZHANG Xiao, LIU Yi Shu, LIU Xiao Ying, HAN Gui Yuan, SHI Yu, HUANG Zheng Jing, LI Chun, ZHAO Zhen Ping, WANG Li Min, LI Yi Chong
2023, 36(4): 313-323. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.037
  Objective  To investigate the spatial patterns of the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rates of dyslipidemia at the provincial level in China.   Methods  A national and provincial representative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 178,558 Chinese adults in 31 provinces in mainland China in 2018–2019, using a multi-stage, stratified, cluster-randomized sampling design. Subjects, as households, were selected, followed by a home visit to collect information. Both descriptive and linear regression procedures were applied in the analyses.   Results  The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia was 35.6%, and wide geographic variations of prevalence, treatment, and control rates of dyslipidemia were identified among 178,558 eligible participants with a mean age of 55.1 ± 13.8 years. The highest-lowest difference regarding the provincial level prevalence rates were 19.7% vs. 2.1% for high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 16.7% vs. 2.5% for high total cholesterol, 35.9% vs. 5.4% for high triglycerides, and 31.4% vs. 10.5% for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The treatment rate of dyslipidemia was correlated with the socio-demographic index (P < 0.001), urbanization rate (P = 0.01), and affordable basic technologies and essential medicines (P < 0.001).   Conclusion  Prevailing dyslipidemia among the Chinese population and its wide geographic variations in prevalence, treatment, and control suggest that China needs both integrated and localized public health strategies across provinces to improve lipid management.
Lower Baseline LDL Cholesterol Affects All-cause Mortality in Patients with First Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
CHEN Xi, CHEN Hao, LU Wei Bo, ZHANG Min, TAO Yuan, WANG Qing Cheng, FU Guo Sheng, ZHANG Wen Bin
2023, 36(4): 324-333. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.038
  Objective  Foreign studies have reported that coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with high baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may have a good prognosis, which is called the “cholesterol paradox”. This study aimed to examine whether the “cholesterol paradox” also exists in the Chinese population.   Methods  A total of 2,056 patients who underwent the first percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 2014 and 2016 were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study and classified into two groups based on baseline LDL-C = 2.6 mmol/L (100 mg/dL). The outcomes of interest included major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), all-cause mortality, recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction, unexpected coronary revascularization, or any nonfatal stroke.   Results  All-cause mortality occurred in 8 patients (0.7%) from the low-LDL-C group and 12 patients (2.4%) in the high-LDL-C group, with a significant difference between the two groups (adjusted hazard ratio: 4.030, 95% confidence interval: 1.088–14.934; P = 0.037). However, no significant differences existed for the risk of MACE or other secondary endpoints, such as unexpected revascularization, nor any nonfatal stroke in the two groups.   Conclusion  In this study, a high baseline LDL-C was not associated with a low risk of clinical outcomes in CAD patients undergoing first PCI, which suggested that the “cholesterol paradox” may be inapplicable to Chinese populations.
Prevalence of HCV Antibody and its Associated Factors: A Study from Sentinel Hospitals in China
XU Peng, DING Guo Wei, WANG Xiao Chun, YE Shao Dong, HEI Fa Xin, YU Jie Jun, YUAN Qing, LIU Zhong Fu, LI Jian
2023, 36(4): 334-342. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.039
  Objective   The prevalence and related factors of serum anti-HCV in different regions and hospitals have not been studied extensively in China. We used routine screening data to determine the prevalence of HCV antibody in hospital patients, evaluate the epidemic trend of hepatitis C and formulate screening strategies.   Methods   Patient information and HCV antibody testing results were collected from January 2017 to December 2019 in 77 HCV sentinel hospitals in China. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the characteristics and associations.   Results   HCV antibody prevalence rates were distinct among patients in different departments, with a range of 0.33%–6.93%. Patients who were admitted to the liver disease-related departments (aOR = 10.76; 95% CI, 10.27–11.28), Internal Medicine (aOR = 2.87; 95% CI, 2.75–3.00), and Department of Surgery (aOR = 1.95; 95% CI, 1.87–2.04), were more likely to be tested for HCV antibody positive. HCV antibody prevalence was associated with patients aged 45 years and older (aOR = 2.74; 95% CI, 2.69–2.80), testing in infetious disease hospitals (aOR = 2.33; 95% CI, 2.26–2.40) and secondary hospitals (aOR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.69–1.75). Patients in sentinel hospitals of the Northeast (aOR = 12.75; 95% CI, 12.40–13.11), the Central (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.61–1.70), and the West (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI, 1.73–1.83) China had higher HCV prevalence than those who were in the Eastern coastal area.   Conclusion   Those who were over 45 years old and saw doctors for liver diseases, and invasive diagnosis and treatment should be referred to HCV antibody testing.
A Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Proteus mirabilis
CHEN Sheng Lin, KANG Yu Tong, LIANG Yi He, QIU Xiao Tong, LI Zhen Jun
2023, 36(4): 343-352. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.040
  Objective   A core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) scheme to genotype and identify potential risk clonal groups (CGs) in Proteus mirabilis.   Methods   In this work, we propose a publicly available cgMLST scheme for P. mirabilis using chewBBACA. In total 72 complete P. mirabilis genomes, representing the diversity of this species, were used to set up a cgMLST scheme targeting 1,842 genes, 635 unfinished (contig, chromosome, and scaffold) genomes were used for its validation.   Results   We identified a total of 205 CGs from 695 P. mirabilis strains with regional distribution characteristics. Of these, 159 unique CGs were distributed in 16 countries. CG20 and CG3 carried large numbers of shared and unique antibiotic resistance genes. Nine virulence genes (papC, papD, papE, papF, papG, papH, papI, papJ, and papK) related to the P fimbrial operon that cause severe urinary tract infections were only found in CG20. These CGs require attention due to potential risks.   Conclusion   This research innovatively performs high-resolution molecular typing of P. mirabilis using whole-genome sequencing technology combined with a bioinformatics pipeline (chewBBACA). We found that the CGs of P. mirabilis showed regional distribution differences. We expect that our research will contribute to the establishment of cgMLST for P. mirabilis.
Benefits of Mindfulness Training on the Mental Health of Women During Pregnancy and Early Motherhood: A Randomized Controlled Trial
WANG Shu Lei, SUN Meng Yun, HUANG Xing, ZHANG Da Ming, YANG Li, XU Tao, PAN Xiao Ping, ZHENG Rui Min
2023, 36(4): 353-366. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.041
  Objective  This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a mindfulness-based psychosomatic intervention on depression, anxiety, fear of childbirth (FOC), and life satisfaction of pregnant women in China.   Methods  Women experiencing first-time pregnancy (n = 104) were randomly allocated to the intervention group or a parallel active control group. We collected data at baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1), 3 days after delivery (T2), and 42 days after delivery (T3). The participants completed questionnaires for the assessment of the levels of depression, anxiety, FOC, life satisfaction, and mindfulness. Differences between the two groups and changes within the same group were analyzed at four time points using repeated-measures analysis of variance.   Results  Compared with the active control group, the intervention group reported lower depression levels at T2 (P = 0.038) and T3 (P = 0.013); reduced anxiety at T1 (P = 0.001) and T2 (P = 0.003); reduced FOC at T1 (P < 0.001) and T2 (P = 0.04); increased life satisfaction at T1 (P < 0.001) and T3 (P = 0.015); and increased mindfulness at T1 (P = 0.01) and T2 (P = 0.006).   Conclusion  The mindfulness-based psychosomatic intervention effectively increased life satisfaction and reduced perinatal depression, anxiety, and FOC.
Letter to the Editor
Leukocyte Telomere Length and Lacunar Stroke: A Mendelian Randomization Study
DANG Mei Juan, LI Tao, ZHAO Li Li, LI Ye, WANG Xiao Ya, WU Yu Lun, LU Jia Liang, LU Zi Wei, YANG Yang, FENG Yu Xuan, WANG He Ying, JIAN Ya Ting, FAN Song Hua, JIANG Yu, ZHANG Gui Lian
2023, 36(4): 367-370. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.042
Type 2 Diabetes and Hyperlipidemia Caused by AKT2 Gene Combined with PLIN1 Gene Mutation: A Case Report
LIU Jing, LI Sheng Bing, LUO Xie, YUAN Lei, LAI Ye Rui, ZHANG Li Li
2023, 36(4): 371-375. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.043
A Comparative Study of Blood Lead Levels in Urban Children in China: The China Nutrition and Health Survey (CNHS) 2002 and 2012
LIU Xiao Bing, GONG Zhao Long, ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Hui Di, WANG Jun, TAN Hong Xing, PIAO Jian Hua, YANG Li Chen, YANG Xiao Guang
2023, 36(4): 376-380. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.044
rs3735664 Polymorphism Affecting ELFN1-AS1 Adsorption on miR-1231 is Associated with Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility and Tumor Stage
LI Xian Yang, HUANG Zhi Jun, LI Jian Ping, GAO Xue Ren
2023, 36(4): 381-383. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.045
Evaluation of Microsphere-based xMAP Test for gyrA Mutation Identification in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
OU Xi Chao, ZHAO Bing, SONG Ze Xuan, PEI Shao Jun, WANG Sheng Fen, HE Wen Cong, LIU Chun Fa, LIU Dong Xin, XING Rui Da, XIA Hui, ZHAO Yan Lin
2023, 36(4): 384-387. doi: 10.3967/bes2023.046