Objective This study prospectively investigates the association between immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycan traits and ischemic stroke (IS) risk.Methods A nested case-control study was conducted in the China suboptimal health cohort study, which recruited 4,313 individuals in 2013–2014. Cases were identified as patients diagnosed with IS, and controls were 1:1 matched by age and sex with cases. IgG N-glycans in baseline plasma samples were analyzed.Results A total of 99 IS cases and 99 controls were included, and 24 directly measured glycan peaks (GPs) were separated from IgG N-glycans. In directly measured GPs, GP4, GP9, GP21, GP22, GP23, and GP24 were associated with the risk of IS in men after adjusting for age, waist and hip circumference, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Derived glycan traits representing decreased galactosylation and sialylation were associated with IS in men (FBG2S2/(FBG2 + FBG2S1 + FBG2S2): odds ratio (OR) = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87–0.97; G1n: OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.63–0.87; G0n: OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.03–1.22). However, these associations were not found among women.Conclusion This study validated that altered IgG N-glycan traits were associated with incident IS in men, suggesting that sex discrepancies might exist in these associations.
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the clinical benefits of a vancomycin dosage strategy based on a serum trough concentration model in elderly patients. Methods This prospective single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial categorized 66 elderly patients with severe pneumonia into study and control groups. The control group received vancomycin using a regimen decided by the attending physician. Meanwhile, the study group received individualized vancomycin therapy with a dosing strategy based on a serum trough concentration model. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with serum trough concentrations reaching the target values. The secondary endpoints were clinical response, vancomycin treatment duration, and vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury (VA-AKI) occurrence. Results All patients were at least 60 years old (median age = 81 years). The proportion of patients with target trough concentration achievement (≥ 15 mg/L) with the initial vancomycin regimen was significantly higher in the study group compared to the control group (75.8% vs. 42.4%, P = 0.006). Forty-five patients (68.2%) achieved clinical success, the median duration of vancomycin therapy was 10.0 days, and VA-AKI occurred in eight patients (12.1%). However, there were no significant differences in these parameters between the two groups. The model for predicting vancomycin trough concentrations was upgraded to: serum trough concentration (mg/L) = 17.194 − 0.104 × creatinine clearance rate (mL/min) + 0.313 × vancomycin daily dose [(mg/(kg∙d)]. Conclusion A vancomycin dosage strategy based on a serum trough concentration model can improve the proportion of patients achieving target trough concentrations in elderly patients with severe pneumonia.
Objective To explore the genotyping characteristics of human fecal Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the relationships between antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and multidrug resistance (MDR) of E. coli in Miyun District, Beijing, an area with high incidence of infectious diarrheal cases but no related data.Methods Over a period of 3 years, 94 E. coli strains were isolated from fecal samples collected from Miyun District Hospital, a surveillance hospital of the National Pathogen Identification Network. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the broth microdilution method. ARGs, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and polymorphism trees were analyzed using whole-genome sequencing data (WGS).Results This study revealed that 68.09% of the isolates had MDR, prevalent and distributed in different clades, with a relatively high rate and low pathogenicity. There was no difference in MDR between the diarrheal (49/70) and healthy groups (15/24).Conclusion We developed a random forest (RF) prediction model of TEM.1 + baeR + mphA + mphB + QnrS1 + AAC.3-IId to identify MDR status, highlighting its potential for early resistance identification. The causes of MDR are likely mobile units transmitting the ARGs. In the future, we will continue to strengthen the monitoring of ARGs and MDR, and increase the number of strains to further verify the accuracy of the MDR markers.
Objective The mode of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission via injection drug use (IDU) still exists, and the recent shift in IDU-related transmission of HIV infection is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the spatiotemporal sources and dynamics of HIV-1 transmission through IDU in Guangxi. Methods We performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of infections across Guangxi from 2009 to 2019. Phylogenetic and Bayesian time-geographic analyses of HIV-1 sequences were performed to confirm the characteristics of transmission between IDUs in combination with epidemiological data. Results Among the 535 subjects, CRF08_BC (57.4%), CRF01_AE (28.4%), and CRF07_BC (10.7%) were the top 3 HIV strains; 72.6% of infections were linked to other provinces in the transmission network; 93.6% of sequence-transmitted strains were locally endemic, with the rest coming from other provinces, predominantly Guangdong and Yunnan; 92.1% of the HIV transmission among people who inject drugs tended to be transmitted between HIV-positive IDUs. Conclusion HIV recombinants were high diversity, and circulating local strains were the transmission sources among IDUs in Guangxi. However, there were still cases of IDUs linked to other provinces. Coverage of traditional prevention strategies should be expanded, and inter-provincial collaboration between Guangxi, Yunnan, and Guangdong provinces should be strengthened.
Objective To develop a few-shot learning (FSL) approach for classifying optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in patients with inherited retinal disorders (IRDs). Methods In this study, an FSL model based on a student–teacher learning framework was designed to classify images. 2,317 images from 189 participants were included. Of these, 1,126 images revealed IRDs, 533 were normal samples, and 658 were control samples. Results The FSL model achieved a total accuracy of 0.974–0.983, total sensitivity of 0.934–0.957, total specificity of 0.984–0.990, and total F1 score of 0.935–0.957, which were superior to the total accuracy of the baseline model of 0.943–0.954, total sensitivity of 0.866–0.886, total specificity of 0.962–0.971, and total F1 score of 0.859–0.885. The performance of most subclassifications also exhibited advantages. Moreover, the FSL model had a higher area under curves (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in most subclassifications. Conclusion This study demonstrates the effective use of the FSL model for the classification of OCT images from patients with IRDs, normal, and control participants with a smaller volume of data. The general principle and similar network architectures can also be applied to other retinal diseases with a low prevalence.
Objective Here, we explored molecular changes that could potentially mediate healing effects of Gua Sha — a method employed by the Chinese traditional medicine with proven track records of safe and efficient applications dating back to ancient times as well as support from randomized controlled trials performed by modern medical studies — yet remaining almost entirely unexplored by the modern-day high-throughput methods of the -omics sciences. Methods We investigated transcriptome changes occurring shortly after Gua Sha treatment in the whole blood of healthy volunteers using bulk RNA-seq analysis. We applied various analytical tools to identify genes with consistent expression changes in multiple individuals in response to Gua Sha and their networks. Results We found that while the changes were very subtle and individual-specific, we could identify consistent upregulation of three histone genes. Further analysis of the potential regulatory networks of these histone genes revealed the enrichment of functions involved in the immune response and inflammation. Conclusion The significance of these results in the context of potential effects of Gua Sha and the next steps in exploring the molecular mechanisms of action of this technique are discussed.