2006 Vol. 19, No. 3
2006, 19(3): 163-168.
Objective To analyze the forces of rotational wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor on small tissue pieces or microcarrier particles and to determine the tracks of microcarrier particles in RWV bioreactor. Methods The motion of the microcarrier in the rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor with both the inner and outer cylinders rotating was modeled by numerical simulation. Results The continuous trajectory of microcarrier particles, including the possible collision with the wall was obtained. An expression between the minimum rotational speed difference of the inner and outer cylinders and the microcarrier particle or aggregate radius could avoid collisions with either wall. The range of microcarrier radius or tissue size, which could be safely cultured in the RWV bioreactor, in terms of shear stress level, was determined. Conclusion The model works well in describing the trajectory of a heavier microcarrier particle in rotating wall vessel.
2006, 19(3): 169-172.
Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of the mycelium extract from a Chinese fungus (M1) on HIV-1 and its mode of action. Methods Several in vitro methods including time of action, time of addition and PCR were used to test the mode of action of M1. Results M1 inhibited acute HIV infection in vitro and was effective when it was added 12 h after infection. PCR analysis of infected cells demonstrated that M1 delayed the appearance of late product of reverse transcription and HIV was blocked before its RNA expression. Conclusion The target of M 1 is post-integration of proviral DNA.
2006, 19(3): 173-178.
Objective To evaluate the disinfection of wastewater in China. Methods During the SARS epidemic occurred in Beijing, a study of different disinfection methods used in the main local wastewater plants including means of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and ultraviolet was carried out in our laboratory. The residual coliform, bacteria and trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids were determined after disinfection. Results Chlorine had fairly better efficiency on microorganism inactivation than chlorine dioxide with the same dosage. Formation of THMs and HAAs does not exceed the drinking water standard. UV irradiation had good efficiency on microorganism inactivation and good future of application in China. Organic material and ammonia nitrogen was found to be significant on inactivation and DBPs formation. Conclusion Chlorine disinfection seems to be the best available technology for coliform and bacteria inactivation. And it is of fairly low toxicological hazard due to the transformation of monochloramine.
2006, 19(3): 179-184.
Objective To investigate whether the common variants 45T/G and 276G/T in APM1 gene were associated with hypertension combined with obesity (HO) and related clinical features in Chinese Han population. Methods A case-control study design was applied. Common polymorphisms of 45T/G and 276G/T were getotyped by PCR product sequencing in 484cases with HO and 502 controls with normal blood presure and BMI ＜ 25. Results The genotype and allele frequencies of 45T/G, 276G/T, and haplotype defined by the two variants in cases did not differ from those in controls. The means of blood pressure, BMI and waist-hip ratio did not differ among genotypes of the two polymorphisms and haplotypes. Among lipid profiles, only serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in T allele carriers than that in non-T carriers after adjusting possible confounding factors (1.21 vs 1.32 mmol/L, P=0.0001). Conclusion Polymorphisms of 45T/G and 276G/T in APM1 gene are not associated with hypertension or obesity, or their clinical features in Chinese Han population. Common polymorphism of 45T/G might be associated with serum HDL-C levels in Chinese.
Inhibitory Effects of Saponins From Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge on the Growth of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
2006, 19(3): 185-191.
Objective To investigate the effects of saponins from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge (SAaB) (Botanical Name: Anemarrhena Asphodeloidis Rhizoma) on the growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods Cell proliferation was measured by a newly developed cell proliferation reagent, WST-1. Cell apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry through detecting annexin V. Nitric oxide production was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy with diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2, DA). Cell aldose reductase (AR) activity, as well as the effect of Epalrestat and interleukin-1β were also explored. Results WST assay showed that cell proliferation induced by serum was significantly inhibited by SAaB (P＜0.01). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that SAaB could enhance apoptotic rate of VSMCs (P＜0.01). Nitric oxide production was significantly enhanced after administration of SAaB and interleukin- 1β. Moreover, AR activity of VSMCs was also remarkably inhibited by both SAaB and Epalrestat (P＜0.01). Conclusion SAaB can inhibit proliferation and enhance apoptosis of VSMCs. It may protect vascular cells by inhibiting VSMC proliferation and augmenting apoptotic rate of VSMCs via NO-dependent pathway.