2015 Vol. 28, No. 1
Methods The PLGA/HAp/Zein composite scaffolds were fabricated by electrospinning method. The physiochemical properties and biocompatibility of the scaffolds were separately characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) culture and animal experiments.
Results The prepared PLGA/HAp/Zein scaffolds showed fibrous structure with homogenous distribution. hUC-MSCs could attach to and grow well on PLGA/HAp/Zein scaffolds, and there was no significant difference between cell proliferation on scaffolds and that without scaffolds (P>0.05). The PLGA/HAp/Zein scaffolds possessed excellent ability to promote in vivo cartilage formation. Moreover, there was a large amount of immature chondrocytes and matrix with cartilage lacuna on PLGA/HAp/Zein scaffolds.
Conclusion The data suggest that the PLGA/HAp/Zein scaffolds possess good biocompatibility, which are anticipated to be potentially applied in cartilage tissue engineering and reconstruction.
Methods 48 male Wistar rats were exposed to 30 mW/cm2 microwave for 10 min every other day for three times. Hippocampal structure was observed through H&E staining and transmission electron microscope. PC12 cells were exposed to 30 mW/cm2 microwave for 5 min and the synapse morphology was visualized with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The release of amino acid neurotransmitters and calcium influx were detected. The expressions of several key NMDAR signaling molecules were evaluated.
Results Microwave exposure caused injury in rat hippocampal structure and PC12 cells, especially the structure and quantity of synapses. The ratio of glutamic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitters was increased and the intracellular calcium level was elevated in PC12 cells. A significant change in NMDAR subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B) and related signaling molecules (Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II gamma and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein) were examined.
Conclusion 30 mW/cm2 microwave exposure resulted in alterations of synaptic structure, amino acid neurotransmitter release and calcium influx. NMDAR signaling molecules were closely associated with impaired synaptic plasticity.
Methods 12 oligonucleotide probes based on the wild-type and mutant genotype rpoB sequences of M. tuberculosis were designed to screen the most frequent wild-type and mutant genotypes for diagnosing RIF resistance. 300 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were detected by RDBH, conventional drug-susceptibility testing (DST) and DNA sequencing to evaluate the RDBH assay.
Results The sensitivity and specificity of the RDBH assay were 91.2%(165/181) and 98.3%(117/119), respectively, as compared to DST. When compared with DNA sequencing, the accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDBH assay were 97.7%(293/300), 98.2%(164/167), and 97.0%(129/133), respectively. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most common mutations were in codons 531 (48.6%), 526 (25.4%), 516 (8.8%), and 511 (6.6%), and the combinative mutation rate was 15 (8.3%). One and two strains of insertion and deletion were found among all strains, respectively.
Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the RDBH assay is a rapid, simple and sensitive method for diagnosing RIF-resistant tuberculosis.
Methods Rats were randomly divided into: control group, untreated diabetes group and diabetes group treated with silymarin (120 mg/kg·d) for 10 d. Rats were sacrificed, and the cardiac muscle specimens and blood samples were collected. The immunoreactivity of caspase-3 and Bcl-2 in the cardiomyocytes was measured. Total proteins, glucose, insulin, creatinine, AST, ALT, cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were estimated.
Results Unlike the treated diabetes group, cardiomyocyte apoptosis increased in the untreated rats, as evidenced by enhanced caspase-3 and declined Bcl-2 activities. The levels of glucose, creatinine, AST, ALT, cholesterol, and triglycerides declined in the treated rats. The declined levels of insulin were enhanced again after treatment of diabetic rats with silymarin, reflecting a restoration of the pancreaticβ-cells activity.
Conclusion The findings of this study are of great importance, which confirmed for the first time that treatment of diabetic subjects with silymarin may protect cardiomyocytes against apoptosis and promote survival-restoration of the pancreaticβ-cells.