2016 Vol. 29, No. 6

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Relationship between Iodine Content in Household Iodized Salt and Thyroid Volume Distribution in Children
CHAO Hong, ZHANG Yu Fu, LIU Peng, HAN Yun Feng, LIU Shou Jun
2016, 29(6): 391-397. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.051
Objective To assess the effect of different levels of salt iodine content on thyroid volume (ThV) distribution using data from the 1999, 2011, and 2014 Chinese national iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) surveys.
Methods Probability proportion to size (PPS) sampling method was used to obtain a representative national sample of 34,547, 38,932, and 47,188 Chinese children aged 8-10 years in 1999, 2011, and 2014 Chinese national IDD surveys, respectively. The iodine content in household iodized salt and urinary iodine concentration were measured and thyroid ultrasound examination was performed. The data were analyzed by SAS software using histograms and box plots. The skewness and kurtosis were calculated for testing the normality of ThV.
Results The median iodine content in household iodized salt dropped from 42.30 mg/kg in 1999 to 25.00 mg/kg in 2014. The median urinary iodine concentration of children aged 8-10 years decreased from 306.0μg/L in 1999 to 197.9μg/L in 2014. The median and interquartile range (IQR) of ThV in 1999, 2011, and 2014 surveys were 3.44 mL and 1.50 mL, 2.60 mL and 1.37 mL, 2.63 mL and 1.25 mL, respectively. The skewness and kurtosis of ThV distribution in 1999, 2011, and 2014 surveys were 1.34 and 5.84, 0.98 and 3.54, 1.27 and 5.49, respectively.
Conclusion With reduced salt iodization levels, the median urinary iodine concentration and median ThV of children decreased significantly, and the symmetry of the ThV distribution improved.
Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and Its Relationship with Iodine Status in Shanghai:a Population-based Study
SONG Jun, ZOU Shu Rong, GUO Chang Yi, ZANG Jia Jie, ZHU Zhen Ni, MI Ming, HUANG Cui Hua, YU Hui Ting, LU Xi, RUAN Ye, WU Fan
2016, 29(6): 398-407. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.052
Objective This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid nodules (TNs) and its relationship with urine iodine concentrations (UICs) after the regional rapid economic growth and lifestyle changes.
Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the general population aged 15-69 years. A questionnaire regarding general and personal characteristics and relevant information was administered. Ultrasonography of the thyroid was performed, and serum triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) levels were measured for each individual subject.
Results The prevalence rates of TNs in the whole population, females and males were 27.76%, 34.04%, and 21.60%, respectively. The prevalence of multiple nodules increased with age, whereas the prevalence peaks differed between males and females. The median UICs in the whole population and females with non-TNs were higher than those of subjects with TNs (P=0.0035, P=0.0068). The median UICs in subjects with a single TN were higher than those in subjects with multiple TNs (P=0.0164, P=0.0127). The result showed a U-shaped curve relationship between UIC and prevalence of TNs. The prevalence of TNs was the lowest when the UIC was 140-400 μg/L.
Conclusion The prevalence of TNs was nearly 30%and increased with age. The relationship between UIC and prevalence of TNs is U-shaped, with an increase in risk when the UIC was <140 μg/L and>400 μg/L. Very low or high UIC levels need attention and correction.
Epidemiology of Diabetes in Adults Aged 35 and Older from Shanghai, China
RUAN Ye, YAN Qing Hua, XU Ji Ying, YANG Qun Di, YAO Hai Hong, LI Rui, SHI Yan
2016, 29(6): 408-416. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.053
Objective This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of diabetes in adults from Shanghai, aged 35 and older, in 2013.
Methods We estimated the diabetes prevalence in a representative sample of 18,736 adults who were selected through a multistage stratified cluster sampling process. A standard questionnaire containing questions about demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors was distributed. After an overnight fast of at least 10 hours, a venous blood sample was collected from each participant. For each patient without a history of diabetes, another blood sample was drawn 120 min after an oral glucose tolerance test to identify undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetic condition.
Results Among Shanghai residents aged 35 and above, the overall weighted prevalence of diabetes was 17.6%[95%confidence interval (CI):16.4%-18.8%]. The prevalences were 19.3%in men and 15.8%in women as well as 19.1%, 15.4%, and 16.1%in urban, suburban, and rural residents, respectively. In addition, the weighted prevalence of prediabetes was 16.5% (95% CI: 15.3%-17.8%), with the prevalences of 16.5%in men, 16.6%in women, 15.2%in urban residents, 18.0%in suburban residents, and 18.5% in rural residents. Among all patients with diabetes, 68.1% (95% CI: 64.3%-71.6%) were aware of their status, 63.5%(95%CI:60.0%-66.9%) received diabetes treatment, but only 35.1%(95%CI:32.4%-37.8%) had adequate glycemic control.
Conclusion In Shanghai, diabetes and prediabetes are highly prevalent. However, 1/3rd of diabetes cases are undiagnosed, and the rate of glycemic control is low.
Expression and Purification of Recombinant Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) Antigen for Use in a Diagnostic ELISA for HDV Infection Using the High-Density Fermentation Strategy in Escherichia coli
LU Xue Xin, YI Yao, SU Qiu Dong, BI Sheng Li
2016, 29(6): 417-423. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.054
Objective Hepatitis Delt a Virus (HDV) antigen is widely used as a capture antigen in ELISAs for the identification of HDV infection;large amounts of recombinant HDV antigen with active antigenicity are required for this purpose.
Methods Reconstruct the gene of HDV antigen based on the bias code of Escherichia coli, the recombinant protein expresses by high-density fermentation with fed-batch feeding strategy, and purify by immobilized metal chromatography. The sensitivity and specificity of this antigen detect by ELISA method.
Results The expression of HDV antigen can reach 20%of the total cell mass in the soluble form. The recombinant HDV antigen can be conveniently purified (98%) by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) using the interaction between a His-tag and nickel ions. Production of recombinant HDV antigen can reach 0.5 g/L under conditions of high-density cell fermentation. Applied to the diagnostic ELISA method, the recombinant HDV antigen shows excellent sensitivity (97%for IgM and 100%for IgG) and specificity (100%for IgG and IgM) for the detection of anti-HDV antibodies.
Conclusion Expression and purification the recombinant HDV antigen as a candidate protein for application in a diagnostic ELISA for HDV infection. Large-scale production of the protein can be achieved using the high-density fermentation strategy.
Legionella dumoffii Tex-KL Mutated in an Operon Homologous to traC-traD is Defective in Epithelial Cell Invasion
QIN Tian, Iida Ken-ichiro, REN Hong Yu, ZHOU Hai Jian, Shin-ichi Yoshida
2016, 29(6): 424-434. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.055
Objective To understand the mechanism of invasion by Legionella dumoffii.
Methods The L. dumoffii strain Tex-KL was mutated using the Tn903 derivative, Tn903dIIlacZ. After screening 799 transposon insertion mutants, we isolated one defective mutant. We then constructed the gene-disrupted mutant, KL16, and studied its invasion of and intracellular growth in HeLa and A549 cells, and in A/J mice survival experiments. The structure of traC-traD operon was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results The transposon insertion was in a gene homologous to Salmonella typhi traC, which is required for the assembly of F pilin into the mature F pilus structure and for conjugal DNA transmission. Results from RT-PCR suggested that the traC-traD region formed an operon. We found that when the traC gene was disrupted, invasion and intracellular growth of L. dumoffii Tex-KL were impaired in human epithelial cells. When mice were infected by intranasal inoculation with a traC deficient mutant, their survival significantly increased when compared to mice infected with the wild-type strain.
Conclusion Our results indicated that the traC-traD operon is required for the invasion and intracellular growth abilities of L. dumoffii Tex-KL in epithelial cells.
Damage to Hippocampus of Rats after Being Exposed to Infrasound
ZHANG Meng Yao, CHEN Chen, XIE Xue Jun, XU Sheng Long, GUO Guo Zhen, WANG Jin
2016, 29(6): 435-442. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.056
Objective The objective was to observe damage of hippocampus in rats after exposure to infrasound, and to assess HSP70 expression in hippocampus.
Methods SD rats in the experimental group were exposed to 140 dB (8 Hz) infrasound for 2 h per day for 3 days. The morphology of the hippocampus was examined by transmission electronic microscopic (TEM). Cell apoptosis was observed by TUNEL staining at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 2 w after exposure. HSP70 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB).
Results TEM showed that hippocampus was significantly damaged by exposure, and exhibited recovery 1 week after exposure. The TUNEL data showed that neuronal apoptosis after exposure was significantly higher than in the control rats at 24 h and 48 h, and the apoptotic cells decreased one week after exposure. IHC and WB showed HSP70 expression was significantly higher in the exposed rats, peaked at 24 h.
Conclusion Exposure to 140 dB (8 Hz) infrasound for 2 h per day for 3 days appeared to induce damage to the hippocampus of rats, based on changes in ultrastructure and increased cell apoptosis. However, recovery from the damage occurred overtime. HSP70 expression also increased after the exposure and decreased by 48 h.
Detection and Analysis of Ebola Virus in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biosafety Laboratory from March 11 to April 20, 2015
WANG Qin, ZHANG Yong, WANG Huan Yu, DU Hai Jun, NIE Kai, SONG Jing Dong, XIAO Kang, LEI Wen Wen, GUO Jian Qiang, WEI He Jiang, CAI Kun, WANG Yan Hai, WU Jiang, Gerald BANGURA, Idrissa Laybohr KAMARA, DONG Xiao Ping
2016, 29(6): 443-447. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.057
Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Profile, and Molecular Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Ready-to-eat Food in China, 2013-2014
YAN Shao Fei, WANG Wei, BAI Li, HU Yu Jie, DONG Yin Ping, XU Jin, LI Feng Qin
2016, 29(6): 448-452. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.058
Effects of Exogenous Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecules on the Development of Zebrafish Embryos and Larvae
SONG Jing E, SI Jing, ZHOU Rong, LIU Hua Peng, WANG Zhen Guo, GAN Lu, GUI Fang, LIU Bin, ZHANG Hong
2016, 29(6): 453-456. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.059
A Computerized Evaluation of Sensory Memory and Short-term Memory Impairment After Rapid Ascent to 4280 m
SHI Qing Hai, GE Di, ZHAO Wei, MA Xue, HU Ke Yan, LU Yao, LIU Zheng Xiang, RAN Ji Hua, LI Xiao Ling, ZHOU Yu, FU Jian Feng
2016, 29(6): 457-460. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.060
The Revision of Aluminum-containing Food Additive Provisions in China
ZHANG Hong, ZHANG Ji Yue, WANG Hua Li, LUO Peng Jie, ZHANG Jian Bo
2016, 29(6): 461-466. doi: 10.3967/bes2016.061