2012 Vol. 25, No. 3
2012, 25(3): 251-256. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.001
Major and profound changes have taken place in China over the past 30 years.Rapid socioeconomic progress has exerted a great impact on lifestyle,ranging from food,clothing,working and living conditions,and means of transportation to leisure activities and entertainment.At the same time,new health problems have emerged,and health services are facing new challenges.Presently,cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are among the top health problems of the Chinese people,and pose a serious challenge to all engaged in the prevention and control of these diseases.An epidemic of CVD in China is emerging as a result of lifestyle changes,urbanization and longevity.Both national policy decision-making and medical practice urgently need an authoritative report which comprehensively reflects the trends in the epidemic of CVD and current preventive measures.Since 2005,guided by the Bureau of Disease Prevention of the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China and the National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases of China,nationwide experts in the fields of epidemiology,clinical medicine and health economics in the realms of CVD,cerebrovascular disease,diabetes and chronic kidney disease,completed the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China every year.The report aims to provide a timely review of the trend of the epidemic and to assess the progress of prevention and control of CVD.In addition,as the report is authoritative,representative and readable,it will become an information platform in the CVD field and an important reference book for government,academic institutes,medical organizations and clinical physicians.This publication is expected to play a positive role in the prevention and control of CVD in China.We present an abstract from the Report on Cardiovascular Diseases in China (2010),including trends in CVD,morbidity and mortality of major CVDs,up-to-date assessment of risk factors,as well as health resources for CVD,and a profile of medical expenditure,with the aim of providing evidence for decision-making in CVD prevention and control programs in China,and of delivering the most authoritative information on CVD prevention and control for all citizens.
High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Associated with Different Health Predictors in Middle-Aged and oldest old Chinese
2012, 25(3): 257-266. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.002
Objective To describe the distribution of plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and explore the relationship between hsCRP and metabolic risk factors among residents living in longevity areas of China.Methods 268 individuals aged between 40 and 59 years and 506 individuals aged over 90 years were selected from 5 longevity areas of China to participate in a cross section longitudinal cohort study.The participants were interviewed with general health related questionnaire to collect their demographic,behavioral and lifestyle data,as well as their chronic conditions,and meanwhile their physical and biomedical parameters including waist circumference (WC),blood pressure (BP),hsCRP,plasma lipids,and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were measured.Results The median of hsCRP was 0.99 mg/L in the middle-aged group and 1.76 mg/L in the oldest old group.No significant gender difference was observed between the above two groups.Among the oldest old individuals,36.56％ had an hsCRP level ＞3.0 mg/L.The prevalence of high hsCRP was 16.79％ in the middle-aged group.The results of stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that HDL-C was independently associated with In (hsCRP) concentration in the middle-aged group,whereas In (TG),HDL-C and FBG were correlated after adjustment for gender,study site,smoking,drinking,education and BMI in the oldest old group.Conclusion HDL-C is a stronger predictor of elevated hsCRP than other metabolic factors in the middle-aged population.For the oldest old persons,high TG,low HDL-C,and FBG predict elevated plasma hsCRP.
2012, 25(3): 267-271. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.003
Objective The aim of this survey was to investigate the level of contamination of the most consumed foods in China with 16 rare earth elements (REEs),and to provide the basic data for establishing and revising food safety standards for REEs.Methods Sixteen REEs in foods were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the labs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of four provinces and two municipalities,during 2009-2010.Results 1231 samples were analyzed and 19121 concentration data of 16 REEs were collected.The REEs levels in the investigated foods varied significantly.The concentrations of cerium (Ce),dysprosium (Dy),yttrium (Y),lanthanum (La),and neodymium (Nd) were relatively high,while the remaining eleven REEs were at low levels.The mean values of total rare earth element oxides (REOs) in cereals,fresh vegetables,fresh aquatic products,fresh meats and eggs varied from 0.052 mg/kg to 0.337 mg/kg.Conclusion 16 REEs in the major foods were at very low contamination levels in the investigated regions.
Chemotherapy-based Control of Ascariasis and Hookworm in Highly Endemic Areas of China: Field Observations and a Modeling Analysis
2012, 25(3): 272-281. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.004
Objective Our objective was to systematically evaluate chemotherapy-based control of ascariasis and hookworm infection and make predictions of the effectiveness of repeated mass treatment at different levels of coverage in highly endemic areas of China.Methods Field surveys were carried out to acquire the ascariasis and hookworm prevalence and intensity (mean worm burden) at baseline,one month and one year later.We calculated model parameters based on the survey data,then incorporated them into a quantitative framework to predict the prevalence and intensity one year later.Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of the chemotherapy measures on prevalence and intensity,and model simulations were performed to evaluate the feasibility of achieving the proposed transmission control criteria under different chemotherapy measures.Results The predicted prevalence and intensity one year from baseline were within the 95％ confidence interval of actual values.As treatment frequency or coverage increased,the prevalence and intensity decreased.Model simulations show that many rounds of treatment are needed to maintain the prevalence at a low level in highly endemic areas of China.Conclusion We should select different combinations of treatment frequency,coverage and drug efficacy according to available resources and practical attainable conditions.Mathematical modeling could be used to help optimize the chemotherapeutic scheme aiming at specific parasitic species and areas,and to direct the establishment of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control criteria in China.
Comparison of Lipopolysaccharide and Protein Immunogens from Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica Bio-serotype 1B/O:8 and 2/0:9 using SDS-PAGE
2012, 25(3): 282-290. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.005
Objective Yersinia enterocolitica is an extracellular pathogen and its related antigens interact with the host immune system.We investigated the difference in immunological characteristics between a highly pathogenic and poorly pathogenic strain of Y.enterocolitica.Methods We used SDS-PAGE and western blotting to characterize lipopolysaccharide (LPS),Yersinia outer membrane proteins (Yops),membrane proteins,and whole-cell proteins from poorly pathogenic Y.enterocolitica bio-serotype 2/O:9,isolated from China,and highly pathogenic bio-serotype 1B/O:8,isolated from Japan.Results These two strains of Y.enterocolitica had different LPS immune response patterns.Comparison of their Yops also showed differences that could have accounted for their differences in pathogenicity.The membrane and whole-cell proteins of both strains were similar; immunoblottting showed that the 35 kD and perhaps the 10 kD proteins were immunogens in both strains.Conclusion The major antigens of the two strains eliciting the host immune response were the LPS and membrane proteins,as shown by comparing protein samples with reference and purified preparations.
2012, 25(3): 291-296. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.006
Objective To investigate the influence of the polluted SY River on children's growth and sex hormones,and provide scientific data for assessment of the polluted status of the SY River.Methods The study areas were selected randomly from the SY River Basin.Lead (Pb),mercury (Hg),arsenic (As),phthalates (DEP,DBP,DMP,DEHP),and bisphenol A (BPA) were measured both in the river water and in the drinking water.School children were selected by cluster sampling (n=154).Physical development indexes (height,weight,bust-circumference,and skinfold thickness) and sex hormones [testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2)] were measured for all the children.Results The contents of Pb and Hg exceeded Class V standards of surface water quality in each section of the river and other indicators exceeded Class Ⅲ.Compared to the control area,the concentrations of Pb,Hg,As,BPA,DEP,and DBP in the drinking water were significantly higher than in the polluted area (P＜0.05).Children from the control area had significantly lower E2 and T than children from the polluted area (P＜0.05).Among anthropometric results,only skinfold thickness had statistically significant difference between the two groups (P＜0.05),while the other indexes showed no significant differences between the two groups (P＞0.05).Conclusion The drinking water has been polluted by the SY River and affected serum sex hormone levels of children living in the polluted area.
2012, 25(3): 297-304. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.007
Objective The aim of the study was to establish the contemporary epidemiological characteristics of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Guizhou Province.Methods A retrospective study of National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS) data from 1971 through 2009,was conducted to ascertain the geographical,seasonal,and age distributions of JE incidence in Guizhou Province,China.Results A total of 68 425 JE cases were reported in Guizhou from 1971-2009.The JE cases occurred sporadically in all 9 prefectures of Guizhou,mostly among residents of rural areas.Seasonal distribution of JE remained consistent over the period from 1971-2009 with the main transmission season starting from June to September and peaking in August.JE occurred mainly in children under the age of 15 years with peak incidence in the 0-6-year age group.Pearson's correlation analysis showed that JE vaccine distribution had a negative correlation with JE incidence rates during 1971-2009 (coefficient of correlation=-0.475,P＜0.01).Conclusion Over the period of 1971-2009,the JE incidence rate had declined dramatically in terms of geographical and age distributions due to JE vaccination to children at risk.
2012, 25(3): 305-310. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.008
Objective To investigate the relationship between SNPs reported in previous studies and the blood lipid level in the Tibetan population.Methods Random cluster sampling was employed in 5 areas (Lhasa,Shigatse,5hannan,Nagqu,and Nyingchi).The levels of cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from blood samples were determined and DNA was extracted for genotyping and statistical analyses.Results Among 1 318 subjects aged ＞18 years enrolled in this study,367 had dyslipidemia with a prevalence of 27.8％,of whom dyslipidemia males accounted for 33.1％ and dyslipidemia females 24.5％.Results of the correlation analysis between all SNPs and TG showed that the SNPs of rs714052 and rs964184 were related to the serum TG level.Subjects with rs714052 CC genotype had the lowest TG level,and the highest TG level was found in those with rs714052 TT genotype.The serum TG level in individuals with TC genotype lied in between the above two population groups.Subjects with rs964184 CC genotype had the lowest TG level,and the highest serum TG level was noted in those with rs964184 GG genotype.Conclusion Several SNPs were found to be related to the serum TG level in the Tibetan population.The APOA5 gene and MLXIPL gene may be closely associated with the serum TG level in this ethnic population group.
Hyperglycemic Effects of a Periocular Dexamethasone Injection in Diabetic Patients after Vitreoretinal Surgery
2012, 25(3): 311-316. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.009
Objective To examine the hyperglycemic effects of periocular dexamethasone injection in type 2 diabetic patients after vitreoretinal surgery (VRS).Methods This was a retrospective non-randomized controlled trial.Twenty consecutive hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes and ocular inflammatory reaction after VRS were enrolled in this study.Ten patients received 2.5 mg dexamethasone and 10 patients received 5 mg dexamethasone.Fourteen consecutive type 2 diabetic patients without ocular inflammatory reaction after VRS were used as control group.We measured fasting blood glucose (FBG) and at 2 h after each meal (post prandial glucose,PBG; 09:00,13:00,and 19:00 h) after periocular dexamethasone injection.Differences among three groups were determined by q tests.Results The PBG levels in both dexamethasone-treated groups started to increase within 5 h after injection (i.e.,PBG at 13:00 h),and were significantly increased at 19:00 h after injection (P＜0.05).BG levels were almost 2-fold higher than at baseline and compared with the control group.The BG values declined gradually by 24 h to 48 h after injection.There were no differences in BG levels between the two dexamethasone-treated groups (P＞0.05),except for PBG at 19:00 h on day 2 after injection (P＜0.05).Conclusion Periocular dexamethasone injection can cause transient hyperglycemia in diabetic patients after VRS.BG monitoring should be performed following such injection.
Effects of Short-Term Forest Bathing on Human Health in a Broad-Leaved Evergreen Forest in Zhejiang Province, China
2012, 25(3): 317-324. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.010
Objective To investigate the effects of short-term forest bathing on human health.Methods Twenty healthy male university students participated as subjects and were randomly divided into two groups of 10.One group was sent on a two-night trip to a broad-leaved evergreen forest,and the other was sent to a city area.Serum cytokine levels reflecting inflammatory and stress response,indicators reflecting oxidative stress,the distribution of leukocyte subsets,and plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations were measured before and after the experiment to evaluate the positive health effects of forest environments.A profile of mood states (POMS) evaluation was used to assess changes in mood states.Results No significant differences in the baseline values of the indicators were observed between the two groups before the experiment.Subjects exposed to the forest environment showed reduced oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory level,as evidenced by decreased malondialdehyde,interleukin-6,and tumor necrosis factor α levels compared with the urban group.Serum cortisol levels were also lower than in the urban group.Notably,the concentration of plasma ET-1 was much lower in subjects exposed to the forest environment.The POMS evaluation showed that after exposure to the forest environment,subjects had lower scores in the negative subscales,and the score for vigor was increased.Conclusion Forest bathing is beneficial to human health,perhaps through preventive effects related to several pathological factors.
2012, 25(3): 325-333. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.011
Objective The purpose of this study was to explore how obesity was covered in television news in China,including the trends over time and the characteristics of obesity-related news.Methods The frame analysis was adopted to assess the content of obesity-related news broadcasted in China Central Television (CCTV) from 1982 to 2009.To investigate the characteristics of the news,the obesity-related news was divided into subgroups according to populations concerned,as well as the period in which the news was broadcasted.The differences between subgroups were examined.Results A total of 1 599 pieces of news reported obesity,in which 1 278 pieces (79.92％) aired in "wealthy" period (2006-2009).More news was concerned with adults (1 134,70.92％)."Individual behavior" dominated most of the cause frames (389,24.33％),solution frames (522,32.65％),and responsibility frames (860,53.78％).There was more news mentioning individual factors in news aired in "wealthy" period and news concerning children.The coverage of social-structure causes was higher in news concerning children,while the coverage of social-structure solutions was higher in news concerning children and news aired in "wealthy" period.Conclusion Although the coverage of obesity was modest,it showed an incremental trend as the economy grew.Obesity was mostly depicted as an individual problem in terms of responsibility,causes and solutions.
2012, 25(3): 334-339. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.012
Objective To characterize the relationship between the refolding process of recombinant bovine β-lactoglobulin and its immunoreactivity for clinical purposes.To establish a spectral method which examine the extent of recombinant allergen renaturation.Methods The refolding process of recombinant bovine β-lactoglobulin was investigated by using circular dichroism,fluorescence and synchronous fluorescence spectra.IgE-binding capacity of recombinant protein was analyzed by ELISA.In addition,bioinformatic methods were used to explain the spectral characteristics and analyze the relationship between the conformational changes and the immunoreactivity of the protein during renaturation in vitro.Results Renaturation of recombinant bovine β-lactoglobulin resulted in a more compact structure resembling the natural counterpart with stronger IgE-binding capacity.Conclusion The degree of protein renaturation correlated with the IgE-binding capacity of the protein.Results from this study may be of help for food allergy therapy and development of vaccination in the future.
Dimethoate Induced Oxidative Damage and Histopathological Changes in lung of Adult rats: Modulatory Effects of Selenium and/or Vitamin E
2012, 25(3): 340-351. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.013
Objective To determine the efficiency of selenium and/or vitamin E to alleviate lung oxidative damage induced by dimethoate,an organophosphorus compound.Methods Adult Wistar rats were exposed during 30 days either to dimethoate (0.2 g/L of drinking water),dimethoate+selenium (0.5 mg/kg of diet),dimethoate+vitamin E (100 mg/kg of diet),or dimet hoate+selenium+vitamin E.Results Exposure to dimethoate caused oxidative stress in lung evidenced by an increase of malondialdehyde,protein carbonyl groups and advanced oxidation protein products.An increase in glutathione peroxidase,superoxide dismutase,catalase and a decrease in acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities,glutathione,non-protein thiols and vitamins C levels were observed.Histopathological changes in lung tissue were noted as emphysema,hemorrhages and hemosiderin deposits.Co-administration of selenium or vitamin E to the diet of dimethoate treated rats ameliorated the biochemical parameters as well as histological impairments.The joint effect of these elements was more powerful in antagonizing dimethoate-induced lung oxidative damage.Conclusion We concluded that selenium and vitamin E ameliorated the toxic effects of this pesticide in lung tissue suggesting their role as potential antioxidants.
Echinococcus Granulosus 14-3-3 Protein: A Potential Vaccine Candidate Against Challenge with Echinococcus Granulosus in Mice
2012, 25(3): 352-358. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.014
Objective To investigate the protective immunity against Echinococcus granulosus in mice immunized with rEg14-3-3.Methods ICR mice were subcutaneously immunized three times with rEg14-3-3,followed by the challenge with Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces intraperitoneally and then sacrificed after six months of post-challenge to detect the proliferation of splenocytes by MTT assay,and to measure the secretion of IL-2,IL-4,IL-10,and IFN -γ by ELISA.The rate of reduced hydatid cyst and the levels of IgE,IgG and IgG subclasses in sera were examined.Results Mice vaccinated with rEg14-3-3 and challenged with protoscoleces revealed significant protective immunity of 84.47％.ELISA analysis indicated that the immunized mice generated specific high levels of IgG and the prevailing isotypes of IgG were IgG1 and IgG2a,Splenocytes from mice immunized with rEg14-3-3 showed a significant proliferation response.The secretion of IFN-y and IL-2 increased significantly in the vaccinated mice whereas there was no significant difference in IL-4 and IL-10 levels between vaccinated and control mice.Conclusion The results indicate that the rEg14-3-3 vaccine could induce a high level of protective immunity as a promising vaccine candidate to prevent cystic echinococcosis.
Prediction of Ocular Irritancy of 26 Chemicals and 26 Cosmetic Products with Isolated Rabbit Eye (IRE) Test
2012, 25(3): 359-366. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.015
Objective This study aims to establish and evaluate the methodology of isolated rabbit eye (IRE) test.Methods IRE test was performed according to modifications of the in vitro toxicology (INVITTOX)Protocol No.85:Rabbit enucleated eye test by European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM),and then 26 chemicals and 26 cosmetic products were tested in both in vitro IRE and in vivo Draize tests.A statistical analysis was conducted to determine the relevance of the IRE test to the data generated in the Draize test.Results IRE test was established successfully in our laboratory.It was shown that ranking correlation and class concordance were fairly well between the IRE test and the Draize test for 26 reference chemicals (Fisher's Exact Test x2=51.314,P＜0.001; McNemar P=0.261; Gamma=0.960,P＜0.001;Kappa=0.843,P＜0.001) and 26 cosmetic products (Fisher's Exact Test x2=15.522,P＜0.001; McNemar P=0.311; Gamma=0.967,P＜0.001; Kappa=0.611,P＜0.001).Conclusion IRE test was established successfully for in vitro testing of eye irritation as an alternative to Draize test.
Rapid Detection of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in Nasopharyngeal Swabs by Multiplex PCR
2012, 25(3): 367-371. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.03.016
Objective To establish multiplex PCR-based assays for detecting H.influenzae and H.parainfluenzae.And the PCR-based assays were applied to detect the carriage rates of H.influenzae and H.parainfluenzae in nasopharyngeal swab specimens which were collected from healthy children.Methods Multiplex primers for species-specific PCR were designed by using DNAstar soft based on the sequences of 16S rRNA genes from genus Haemophilus to detect H.influenzae and H.parain fluenzae.Results The sensitivity of the 16S rRNA PCR assay for detecting H.influenzae and H.parainfluenzae was 97.53％ and 100％ respectively,and the specificity was 95.89％ and 96.63％ respectively.Youden's Index on the ability to detect H.influenzae and H.parainfluenzae was 0.9342 and 0.9663 respectively.666 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from healthy children.The detection rates of H.influenzae and H.parainfluenzae were 14.11％ and 16.07％ respectively by using isolation and culture methods.The detection rates of H.influenzae and H.parainfluenzae were 43.54％ and 57.96％ respectively by 16S rRNA PCR assays.The carriage rates of serotypes a,b,c,d,e,f and non-typeable isolates were 0％ (0/666),0.15％ (1/666),1.20％ (8/666),0.15％ (1/666),1.20％ (8/666),1.80％ (12/666),95.50％ (636/666) respectively.Conclusion The multiplex PCR assays were very rapid,reliable and feasible methods for detection of H.influenzae and H.parainfluenzae in pharyngeal swab specimens which were compared to conventional isolation and culture methods.95.5％ of H.influenzae strains in healthy children were nontypeable.The encapsulated or typable strains were mainly three serotypes which was c,e,and f serotype.