2012 Vol. 25, No. 4
Association between High Fat-low Carbohydrate Diet Score and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Population
2012, 25(4): 373-382. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.001
Objective To study the association between high fat-low carbohydrate diet score and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Chinese population.Methods Data about 20 717 subjects aged 45-59 years from the cross-sectional 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey were analyzed.High fat-low carbohydrate diet was scored according to the energy of carbohydrate,fat,and protein.Results Of the 20 717 subjects,1 332 were diagnosed with hyperglycemia and 662 were newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.Multivariate adjusted analysis showed that the highest score of type 2diabetes patients was 2.75 (95％ Cl:2.09-3.61).The score of type 2 diabetes patients was 1.87 (95％ Cl:1.35-2.58) after further adjustment for their socioeconomic status and physical activity.No significant difference was found in the odds ratio after further adjustment for BMl,blood pressure,lipid level,and energy intake.No evidence was observed for the relation between high fat-low carbohydrate-diet score in type 2 diabetes patients due to high family income,less education,physical activity,overweight,hypertension,high TG,or low HDL level.Conclusion High fat-low carbohydrate diets,far different from traditional Chinese diets,are associated with the high incidence of type 2 diabetes in Chinese population.
The Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and its Association with Lifestyle/dietary Habits among University Faculty and Staff in Chengdu
2012, 25(4): 383-391. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.002
Objective To investigate the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in different university categories and its association with lifestyle/dietary habits.Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on 9 378 faculty members and staff who participated in an annual health checkup at three universities selected by random cluster sampling.Demographic,anthropometric,biochemical indices and abdominal ultrasound measurements were collected.A nested case-control study was conducted with 200 NAFLD cases and 200 controls matched by gender,age (±3years),and university.Results The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 10.3％ (13.7％ in males and 6.8％ in females).The prevalence was significantly higher in the science and engineering university (22.1％) than in the comprehensive universities with (6.4％) and without (10.9％) medical colleges.Obesity/overweight,hyperlipidemia,diabetes mellitus,and family history of NAFLD were independently associated with higher risk of NAFLD,as were frequent consumption of desserts and salty/spicy foods.Using nutritional supplements was a protective factor against NAFLD.Intake of coarse cereals,potatoes,vegetables,fruits,and milk was significantly lower,and intake of red meat,viscera,candies and pastries,cooking oil,and total energy was significantly higher in participants with NAFLD than in controls.Conclusion Science and engineering university faculty and staff are key targets for NAFLD prevention.NAFLD is closely associated with age,gender,university type,metabolic diseases,and lifestyle/dietary habits.
Dietary Calcium Decreases Plasma Cholesterol Level only in Female but not in Male Hamster Fed a High Cholesterol Diet
2012, 25(4): 392-398. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.003
Objective To investigate the effect of dietary calcium on plasma lipoprotein profile in castrated and ovariectomized hamsters.Methods Male,castrated,female and ovariectomized hamsters (n=36 each group) were randomly divided into three sub-groups (n=12) and fed one of the three diets containing 0,2,and 8 g calcium per kg diet for a period of six weeks.Changes in plasma lipoprotein profile were monitored at the end of week 0,3 and 6.Results Plasma total cholesterol (TC),non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C),triacylglycerols (TG) and TC/HDL-C were decreased only in intact female and ovariectomized hamsters.In contrast,three levels of dietary calcium had no effect on lipoprotein profiles in both intact male and castrated hamsters.Conclusion Beneficial modification of lipoprotein profile by dietary calcium was gender-dependent at least in hamsters.
Association between Vitamin D Insufficiency and the Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnant Chinese Women
2012, 25(4): 399-406. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.004
Objective To investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant Chinese women.Methods A nested case-control study was conducted.Clinical and biochemical data were analyzed for 200 subjects with GDM and 200 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT).Results The median (interquartile range) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels were 22.39(17.67,29.38) and 25.86 (19.09,34.88) nmol/L in the GDM and NGT groups,respectively.Rates of 25OHD deficiency or insufficiency were significantly higher in the GDM group than in the NGT group.Subjects with 25OHD levels ＜25 nmol/L had a 1.8-fold higher risk of GDM compared with subjects with higher vitamin D levels.In the GDM group,serum 25OHD was independently associated with HbA1c and insulin resistance after adjusting for confounding factors.In the NGT group,serum 25OHD was independently associated with fasting plasma glucose and systolic blood pressure after adjusting for maternal age and other confounding factors.Conclusion 25OHD insufficiency is very common in Chinese women.Low 25OHD status may be associated with insulin resistance and act as a risk factor for GDM.
Epidemiological Survey of the Prevalence of Non-fatal Injury among Children Aged 5-14 Years in China
2012, 25(4): 407-412. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.005
Objective To determine the prevalence of non-fatal injuries among children aged 5-14 years in China.Methods Data of 21 973 children aged 5-14 years were extracted from the Fourth National Health Service Survey of China carried out between June 15 and July 10,2008.Injury-related indicators included:history of ever having had an injury,and injury frequency,cause,location and severity.Results The overall prevalence of non-fatal injuries among the children in the previous 12 months was 17.0 per 1000 subjects.The leading causes of non-fatal injuries were falls,animal bites,traffic accidents,falling objects and burns.The majority of children sustained only one injury.The main place of injury was at home in 40％ and 54％ of urban boys and girls,respectively,at school in 48％ of rural boys,and at home and at school each in 33％ of rural girls.Medical treatment for one day was the main option for 80％ of urban boys and girls,84％ of rural boys,and 72％ of rural girls.Conclusion Nonfatal injuries among children aged 5-14 years are a serious public health concern in China.
2012, 25(4): 413-420. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.006
Objective This study estimated the investment in child development from three aspects-public health,public education,and family investment to establish the level of investment,to provide reference information for government decision making and to provide international comparisons.Methods Public investment in health was measured with macro data related to public health spending and child development in government expenditure.Public education investment was based on basic education data.Family investment evaluation was based on per capita family consumer spending data in different age groups to estimate the input for child development.Results Both public health investment level and the proportion of GDP rose for all age groups over time,but the overall investment level was still insufficient.Public investment in children's education has increased year by year,but the trends in all age groups are unbalanced with much lower investment in early childhood education.Private investment in children has increased over the period,but has declined as a percentage of GDP.International comparisons show that China's investment in child development is much lower than OECD countries.Conclusion The private investment in child development was the main way in China,with public finance contributing only a small proportion.Given the poor international comparisons,the government needs to review the balance of public investment to redirect more towards the development of children under the age of six to their health and education.
2012, 25(4): 421-429. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.007
Objective To explore the risk factors of low back pain among the Chinese occupational population in several major industries.Methods A total of 7200 subjects (3600 cases and 3600 controls) were randomly sampled from a cross-sectional study,and they were investigated for individual and occupational factors of low back pain.The potential risk factors were first selected by using chi-square tests.Secondly,collinearity diagnosis proceeded by using the Kendall's rank correlation.Finally,binary logistic regression model was used for multi-factor analysis.Results Collinearity diagnosis showed that there was a severe collinearity problem among the potential risk factors of low back pain.Logistic regression model included 20 variables with statistical significance.Bending neck forward or holding neck in a forward posture for long periods (OR=1.408) was the most important risk factor inducing low back pain in this study,followed by bending heavily with the trunk (OR=1.402),carrying out identical work almost for the whole day (OR=1.340).Additionally,sufficient normal break was a protective factor of low back pain.Conclusion Low back pain among the Chinese occupational population was associated with body height,occupation,work organization,physical work,working posture,and others.All these risk factors could be regarded as the indicators of low back pain,and some relevant preventive measures should be taken to reduce low back pain risk.
Study on The Method of Quantitative Analysis of Serum Ferritin and Soluble Transferrin Receptor with Protein Microarray Technology
2012, 25(4): 430-439. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.008
Objective To establish and evaluate a protein microarray method for combined measurement of serum ferritin (SF) and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR).Methods Microarrayer was used to print both anti-SF antibodies Ⅰ and anti-sTfR antibodies I on each protein microarray.Anti-SF antibodies Ⅱ and anti-sTfR antibodies Ⅱ were used as detection antibodies and goat antibodies coupled to Cy3 were used as antibodies Ⅲ.The detection conditions of the quantitative analysis method for simultaneous measurement of SF and sTfR with protein microarray were optimized and evaluated.The protein microarray was compared with commercially available traditional tests with 26 serum samples.Results By comparison experiment,mouse monoclonal antibodies were chosen as the probes and contact printing was chosen as the printing method.The concentrations of SF and sTfR probes were 0.5mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL respectively,while those of SF and sTfR detection antibodies were 5 μg/mL and 0.36 μg/mL respectively.Intra- and inter-assay variability was between 3.26％ and 18.38％ for all tests.The regression coefficients comparing protein microarray with traditional test assays were better than 0.81 for SF and sTfR.Conclusion The present study has established a protein microarray method for combined measurement of SF and sTfR.
Comparative Genomic Analysis of Gene Variations of Two Chinese Yersinia pestis Isolates from Vaccine Strain EV76
2012, 25(4): 440-448. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.009
Objective To investigate genomic variations of two Chinese Yersinia pestis isolates that were isolated from different plague foci obtained from vaccine strain EV76 from the Yunnan province of China.Methods A microarray containing 12 000 probes covering the entire genome of seven Yersinia pestis and two Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains,was used.PCR assays were performed to confirm microarray results.Results The gene variations detected included the absence of five genes related to the synthesis of betaine in both EV76 and another sequenced attenuated strain,KIM D27.Several genes related to phage-related membrane proteins were found to be absent in the Antiqua biovar Yunnan strain,485,which was isolated from a rodent plague foci.Conclusion These findings provide initial insight into the distinct strains isolated from natural foci,within their genomic context,including Yunnan Y.pestis strains.This information will be used therefore to establish subsequent comparisons of these sequences with published complete genomes of other strains.
Development of An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Determination of the Furaltadone Etabolite, 3-Amino-5-Morpholinomethyl-2-Oxazolidinone (AMOZ) in Animal Tissues
2012, 25(4): 449-457. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.010
Objective To determine 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ) residues released from protein bound AMOZ in animal tissues.Methods Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were produced in this study.A rapid,sensitive,and specific competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cdELISA) was developed.Results Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were used in the optimized cdELISA method,and exhibited negligible cross-reactivity with other compounds structurally related to AMOZ.The ICso of the polyclonal antibody was 0.16 ng/mL.The method limit of detection in four different types of animal and fish tissues was less than 0.06 ug/kg.Recoveries ranged from 80％ to 120％ for fortified samples with the coefficient of variation values less than 15％.The results of the cdELISA method were in good agreement with the results from an established liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmatory method used for AMOZ residues.Conclusion The cdELISA method developed in the present study is a convenient practical tool for screening large numbers of animal and fish tissue samples for the the detection of released protein bound AMOZ residues.
2012, 25(4): 458-464. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.011
Objective To obtain the exposure-response relationship for temperature and mortality,and assess the risk of heat-related premature death.Methods A statistical model was developed using a Poisson generalized linear regression model with Beijing mortality and temperature data from October 1st,2006 to September 30th,2008.We calculated the exposure-response relationship for temperature and mortality in the central city,and inner suburban and outer suburban regions.Based on this relationship,a health risk model was used to assess the risk of heat-related premature death in the summer (June to August) of 2009.Results The population in the outer suburbs had the highest temperature-related mortality risk.People in the central city had a mid-range risk,while people in the inner suburbs had the lowest risk.Risk assessment predicted that the number of heat-related premature deaths in the summer of 2009was 1581.The city areas of Chaoyang and Haidian districts had the highest number of premature deaths.The number of premature deaths in the southern areas of Beijing (Fangshan,Fengtai,Daxing,and Tongzhou districts) was in the mid-range.Conclusion Ambient temperature significantly affects human mortality in Beijing.People in the city and outer suburban area have a higher temperature-related mortality risk than people in the inner suburban area.This may be explained by a temperature-related vulnerability.
2012, 25(4): 465-470. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.012
Objective Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly cancers,which is characterized by its high metastatic potential.S100A4 is a major prometastatic protein involved in tumor invasion and metastasis which precise role in pancreatic cancer has not been fully investigated.We knocked down the S100A4gene in the Bxpc-3 pancreatic cancer cell line via RNA interference to study the changes in cell behavior.Methods Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect mRNA and protein expression levels of S100A4,matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2,E-cadherin and thrombospondin (TSP)-1.Transwell chambers were used to detect the migration and invasion abilities; a cell adhesion assay was used to detect adhesion ability; colony forming efficiency was used to detect cell proliferation; flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis.Results S100A4 mRNA expression was reduced to 17％ after transfection with S100A4-siRNA,and protein expression had a similar trend.mRNA and protein expression of MMP-2 was reduced and that of E-cadherin and TSP-1 was elevated,indicating that S100A4 affects their expression.S100A4-silenced cells exhibited a marked decrease in migration and invasiveness and increased adhesion,whereas overall proliferation and apoptosis were not overtly altered.Conclusion S100A4 and its downstream factors play important roles in pancreatic cancer invasion,and silencing A100A4 can significantly contain the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer.
2012, 25(4): 471-475. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.013
Objective Fatal familial insomnia (FFl) is an autosomal dominant prion disease characterized clinically by inattention,sleep loss,dysautonomia,and motor signs.This study is aimed to investigate clinical and familial characteristics of ten Chinese Patients with FFI.Methods We identified ten FFl cases from the surveillance network for Creutafeldt- Jakob disease (CJD) in China.Final diagnosis of FFl cases was made in accordance with the WHO criteria for CJD.The main clinical features and family histories of these ten FFI cases were analyzed.Results The median age of ten cases at onset was 38 years (from 19 to 55).The foremost symptoms seemed to be various,including sleep disturbances,vision disorder,dizziness and anorexia.Sleep disturbances appeared in all cases and lasted in the whole clinical courses.Progressive sympathetic symptoms,memory loss,movement disturbances,myoclonus and hypertension were also frequently observed.The median duration of the disease was 9.5 months.EEG and MRI did not figure out special abnormality.14-3-3 protein in CSF was positive in five out of eight tested patients.Clear family histories were identified in 8 patients.Conclusion The data from our study confirm that the Chinese FFl cases have similar clinical characteristics as that of the Caucasian cases.Compared with other genetic CJD associated mutations,the genetic frequencies of D178N in PRNP are apparently high among the Chinese cases.
The effect of Some Boron Derivatives on Kanamycin Resistance and Survival of E.coli and P.aeruginosa in Lake Water
2012, 25(4): 476-482. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.014
Objective To study MIC value of 7 boron derivatives namely [Boric acid (H3BO3),Anhydrous Borax (Na2B4OT),Sodium Borate (NaBO2),Diammonium Tetraborate (NH4)2B4O7,Sodium Perborate (NaBO3),Boron Trioxide (B203),Potassium Tetraborate (K2B4O7)] on E.coli and P.aeruginosa and their effects on survival of bacteria in lake water and resistance against kanamycin antibiotic.Methods MIC values of Boron derivatives and antibiotic were studied by broth microdilution method.The effect of boron derivatives on survival of bacteria in lake water were also determined with plate count.Results Sodium perborate was determined as the most effective substance among the studied substances.Effectiveness increased as temperature increased.E.coli was more affected from P.aeruginosa in 8 mg/mL sodium perborate concentration in lake water.Moreover,it was determined that MIC value of kanamycin antibiotic decreased 200 times by especially treating P.aeruginosa with sodium perborate in lake water.However,it can be stated that this change in resistance did not arise from microorganisms.Conclusion Sodium perborate solution can be used supportedly in kanamycin antibiotic applications for P.aeruginosa.Future studies are necessary to explore the relation between sodium perborate and kanamycin which is effective on P.aeruginosa in lake water.
Estimates of Tuberculosis Mortality Rates in China Using the Disease Surveillance Point System, 2004-2010
2012, 25(4): 483-488. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.015
Objective To understand the current status and trends of tuberculosis mortality rates in China.Methods In 2010,161 National Disease Surveillance Points representing all 31 mainland provinces,municipalities,and autonomous regions of China collected tuberculosis mortality surveillance data,including age,sex,region,and type of tuberculosis (all,pulmonary,and extra-pulmonary).The mortality rates of the three types of tuberculosis were compared between 2004 and 2010.Results In 2010,the mortality rates due to all tuberculosis,pulmonary tuberculosis,and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis were 4.69 (95％ Cl 4.54-4.84),4.38 (4.23-4.52),and 0.31 (0.27-0.35) per 100 000 population,respectively.Mortality rates due to all tuberculosis and pulmonary tuberculosis were higher in males,the elderly,and those living in western and rural areas.From 2004 to 2010,the mortality rates due to all tuberculosis and pulmonary tuberculosis decreased by 36.02％ and 37.70％,respectively,with an average annual rate of decline of 7.20％ and 7.61％,respectively.Conclusion Mortality rates due to tuberculosis have declined rapidly in China.The target of reducing the 1990 mortality rate by 50％ by 2015 has already been achieved.However,the tuberculosis control program should pay more attention to high-risk groups,including the elderly and those living in underdeveloped areas.
Estimation of Population-Size Changes and HIV Prevalence among Female Sex Workers from 2006 to 2009 in Kaiyuan, Yunnan, China
2012, 25(4): 489-494. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2012.04.016
Objective This study is to estimate the population size and prevalence of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections among female sex workers (FSWs) in Kaiyuan,Yunnan Province,China.Methods Eight cross-sectional studies were conducted among FSWs in Kaiyuan from 2006 to 2009.Based on the data from two study time points each year,the total numbers of FSWs and HIV positive FSWs were estimated by using the capture-recapture technique (CR).Results Estimated sizes of FSWs in Kaiyuan were 1 629,1 672,1 186,and 1 014 in the respective years from 2006 to 2009.Although the crude prevalence rates of HIV and HSV-2 varied over time,the adjusted prevalence among this population was relatively stable at 10％-12％ and the adjusted HSV-2prevalence ranged from 67％ to72％.Conclusion The reason for the slight decrease of the size of the FSW population is unknown.The adjusted prevalence rates of HIV and HSV-2 among them were stable over the course of this study.