2017 Vol. 30, No. 11

2017, 30(11): 1-1.
2017, 30(11): 2-2.
Original Articles
Combined Toxicity of an Environmental Remediation Residue, Magnetite Fe3O4 Nanoparticles/Cr(Ⅵ) Adduct
LI Zhuan, LIU Miao, CHEN Li Ke, LI Guang Zhu
2017, 30(11): 783-791. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.106
Objective This paper aims to elucidate the combined toxicity of magnetite nanoparticles/Chromium[MNPs/Cr(Ⅵ)] adducts. Methods The HEK293 cell was exposed to either Cr(Ⅵ) or MNPs, or their adducts MNPs/Cr(Ⅵ). The cytotoxicity was evaluated by assessing the cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress induction, and cellular uptake. Results The toxicity of formed adducts is significantly reduced when compared to Cr(Ⅵ) anions. We found that the cellular uptake of MNPs/Cr(Ⅵ) adduct was rare, only few particles were endocytosed from the extracellular fluid and not accumulated in the cell nucleus. On the other hand, the Cr(Ⅵ) anions entered cells, generated oxidative stress, induced cell apoptosis, and caused cytotoxicity. Conclusion The results showed minor effects of the nanoadducts on the tested cells and supported that magnetite nanoparticles could be implemented in the wastewater treatment process in which advantageous properties outweigh the risks.
Increased PIT1 and PIT2 Expression in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Diabetic Mice Contributes to Uptake of iAs(Ⅴ)*
YU Sha Li, XU Ling Fei, WU Jun Xia, YAO Chen Juan, HU Qiao Yun, ZHANG Chun Xue, ZHAO Xin Yuan, WEI Hai Yan, WANG Xiao Ke, CHEN Gang
2017, 30(11): 792-801. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.107
Objective This study aimed to investigate the susceptibility of mice with streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (TIDM) to the uptake of pentavalent inorganic arsenic (iAs) and the possible molecular mechanism. Methods TIDM was induced in mice by STZ. TIDM and normal mice were treated with 15.0 mg/kg Na2HAsO4·12H2O by intragastric administration. Then, the concentrations of arsenic in various tissues were measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The gene expression levels of PIT1 and PIT2 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR, and their protein levels were detected by Western blotting in mouse heart, kidney, and liver tissues. Results The concentrations of arsenic in STZ-induced TIDM mouse tissues were higher at 2 h after intragastric administration of Na2HAsO4·12H2O. Compared with the levels in normal mice, PIT1 and PIT2, which play a role in the uptake of iAs, were upregulated in the livers and hearts of TIDM mice. PIT1 but not PIT2 was higher in TIDM mouse kidneys. The upregulation of PIT1 and PIT2 expression could be reversed by insulin treatment. Conclusion The increased uptake of iAs in TIDM mouse tissues may be associated with increased PIT1 and/or PIT2 expression.
Handgrip Strength as a Predictor of Nutritional Status in Chinese Elderly Inpatients at Hospital Admission
ZHANG Xin Sheng, LIU Ying Hua, ZHANG Yong, XU Qing, YU Xiao Ming, YANG Xue Yan, LIU Zhao, LI Hui Zi, LI Feng, XUE Chang Yong
2017, 30(11): 802-810. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.108
Objective To assess nutritional status and define gender-and age-specific handgrip strength (HGS) cut-point values for malnutrition or nutritional risk in elderly inpatients. Methods A cross-sectional study of 1, 343 elderly inpatients was conducted in the Chinese PLA General Hospital. Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS 2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) were administered. Anthropometric measurements and blood biochemical indicators were obtained using standard techniques. The gender-and age-specific receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the HGS for nutritional status by SGA and NRS 2002. Sensitivity, specificity, and areas under the curves (AUCs) were calculated. Results According to NRS 2002 and SGA, 63.81% of elderly inpatients were at nutritional risk and 28.22% were malnourished. Patients with higher HGS had an independently decreased risk of malnutrition and nutritional risk. The AUCs varied between 0.670 and 0.761. According to NRS 2002, the optimal HGS cut-points were 27.5 kg (65-74 years) and 21.0 kg (75-90 years) for men and 17.0 kg (65-74 years) and 14.6 kg (75-90 years) for women. According to SGA, the optimal HGS cut-points were 24.9 kg (65-74 years) and 20.8 kg (75-90 years) for men and 15.2 kg (65-74 years) and 13.5 kg (75-90 years) for women. Conclusion Elderly inpatients had increased incidence of malnutrition or nutritional risk. HGS cut-points can be used for assessing nutritional status in elderly inpatients at hospital admission in China.
Investigation of Extracts from Tunisian Ethnomedicinal Plants as Antioxidants, Cytotoxins, and Antimicrobials
Guesmi Fatma, Ben Hadj Ahmed Sami, Landoulsi Ahmed
2017, 30(11): 811-824. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.109
Objective To determine the medicinal potential of various plants and their parts extracted with different solvents. Methods The total phenolic content of acetonitrile/water (60%-40%) (ACN/W) and aqueous (W) extract fractions was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and terpenic compounds were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and β-carotene bleaching method. Cell viability was investigated by thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide[3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol)-2-yl 2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay. The mechanisms involved in cytotoxic activity were investigated in a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and cancer lines. Results Our findings show that 11 plant species exhibited biological activity. In addition, moderate antibacterial activity was reported against one or more of the tested bacterial strains at two concentrations:300 μg and 3 mg/disc. Furthermore, our data reveal that among all plants investigated, some extract and hydrophobic fractions were potent scavengers of the DPPH radical (6.78 μg/mL < EC50 < 8.55 μg/mL). Taken together, our results show that Nerium oleander (NOACN/W) and Pituranthos tortuosus (PTACN/W) were highly cytotoxic against RAW 264.7 cells with IC80 values of 0.36, and 1.55 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, murine macrophage cell lines had low growth and were significantly sensitive to water extracts of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis (THW), Lavandula multifida (LMW), and ACN/W extract of Erica multiflora (EMACN/W) at doses > 400, 47.20, and 116.74 μg/mL, respectively. The current work demonstrates that RAW 264.7 cell proliferation was inhibited by samples in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion Our findings, validated through free radical scavenging activity, agar diffusion assay, and cytotoxicity of essential oils towards cancer cells, show that ethnomedicinal plants used in this work have a novel application as a tumor suppressor.
Letters to the Editor
An Investigation of the First Case of Human Rabies Caused by a Fox in China in May 2016
TAXITIEMUER Aierken, TUERDI Gulina, ZHANG Yi, WUSHOUER Fuerhati, TAO Xiao Yan, TALIPU Jiangatai, YIMAMU Tuohetiyaer, MA Hui Lai
2017, 30(11): 825-828. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.110
This study assesses the causes and prevention measures of rabies through epidemiological investigation and analysis. A field epidemiological survey was conducted to investigate a case of rabies by fox bite. The onset of symptoms began 50 days after the bite. The patient did not receive standard treatment, rabies vaccination, or rabies immunoglobulin injection. The fox was killed on the spot. Saliva and pre-death blood samples were collected at different periods, and only blood RT-PCR tests yielded positive results. Wild fox bite is a major risk factor of rabies infection in Xinjiang Province, China.
Estimation Study of New Cancer Cases and Deaths in Wuwei, Hexi Corridor Region, China, 2018
CAO Bo Yu, LI Cheng Yun, XU Feng Lan, LIU Xiao Qin, YANG Yan Xu, LI Jing, GAO Cai Yun, RONG You Ming, LI Rong Cheng, LI Ya Li, ZHENG Shan, BAI Ya Na, YE Yan Cheng
2017, 30(11): 829-833. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.111
Population-based cancer registration data were collected to estimate the cancer incidence and mortality in Wuwei, Hexi Corridor Region, China in 2018. We used the 2011-2013 data to predict the number of new cases and deaths in 2018 and the 2003-2013 data to analyze trends in cancer incidence and mortality. The goal is to enable cancer prevention and control directions. Our results indicated that stomach cancer is the most common cancer. For all cancers combined, the incidence and mortality rates showed significantly increasing trends (+2.63% per year; P < 0.05 and +1.9% per year; P < 0.05). This study revealed a significant cancer burden among the population of this area. Cancer screening and prevention should be performed after an epidemiological study of the cause of the cancer is completed.
Identification and Validation of Candidate Radiation-responsive Genes for Human Biodosimetry
LI Shuang, LU Xue, FENG Jiang Bin, TIAN Mei, LIU Qing Jie
2017, 30(11): 834-840. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.112
The aim of the present study is to analyze the global research trend of radiation-responsive genes and identify the highly reproducible radiation-responsive genes. Bibliometric methods were applied to analyze the global research trend of radiation-responsive genes. We found 79 publications on radiation-responsive genes from 2000 to 2017. A total of 35 highly reproducible radiation-responsive genes were identified. Most genes are involved in response to DNA damage, cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, and DNA repair. The p53 signal pathway was the top enriched pathway. The expression levels of 18 genes in human B lymphoblastoid cell line (AHH-1) cells were significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner at 24 h after exposure to 0-5 Gy 60Co γ-ray irradiation. Our results indicate that developing a gene expression panel with the 35 high reproducibility radiation-responsive genes may be necessary for qualitative and quantitative assessment after exposure.
Lead Exposure and Oxidative Stress in Coal Miners
Zlatko Zimet, Marjan Bilban, Teja Fabjan, Kristina Suhadolc, Borut Poljšak, Joško Osredkar
2017, 30(11): 841-845. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.113
We aimed to investigate the short-term correlation between blood lead levels and oxidative stress generation in coal miners. The study involved 94 male coal miners from the Velenje Coal mine, arranged into four groups: three groups according to the number of consecutive working days, and a fourth control group. Miners who worked for three consecutive days had higher blood levels of lead and 8-isoprostane than the control group (P < 0.001). Correlation between lead and 8-isoprostane was of medium strength (r = 0.512, P < 0.001). Short-term lead environmental exposure can potentially harmful and should be considered when formulating improvements in working processes.
Psychophysiological Effects of Bamboo Plants on Adults
Ahmad Hassan, CHEN Qi Bing, JIANG Tao, LYU Bing Yang, LI Nian, LI Shu, SHANGGUAN Zi Yue, LI Yun Ting, JUN Zhou Li, LUO Qian, CHEN Xin Yi, WANG Yi Yan, ZENG Cheng Cheng, YANG Jun, Muhammad Sohaib Tahir
2017, 30(11): 846-850. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.114
The present study was conducted to clarify the psychophysiological relaxation effects of viewing bamboo on university students. Forty healthy Chinese participants enrolled in this study to clarify the psychophysiological relaxation effects of viewing bamboo. The effects of visual stimulation using a pot both with and without a bamboo were recorded by measuring the student's blood pressure, EEG and STAI. We observed that viewing bamboo plants resulted in significantly lower systolic (female, P < 0.001; male, P < 0.001; P < 0.05) and diastolic (female, P < 0.001; male, P < 0.001; P < 0.05) blood pressures, but no changes in the pulse rate (female, P = 0.09; male, P = 0.07; P > 0.05) were observed. The results of the EEG analysis indicated brainwave variation (all P < 0.05) and lower anxiety scores (P < 0.01) after 3 min of viewing bamboo compared with the control. These findings indicate that visual stimulation with bamboo plants induced psychophysiological relaxation effects on adults.
Comparison of T-2 Toxin and HT-2 Toxin Distributed in the Skeletal System with That in Other Tissues of Rats by Acute Toxicity Test
YU Fang Fang, LIN Xia Lu, YANG Lei, LIU Huan, WANG Xi, FANG Hua, Mikko J. LAMMI, GUO Xiong
2017, 30(11): 851-854. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.115
Twelve healthy rats were divided into the T-2 toxin group receiving gavage of 1 mg/kg T-2 toxin and the control group receiving gavage of normal saline. Total relative concentrations of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in the skeletal system (thighbone, knee joints, and costal cartilage) were significantly higher than those in the heart, liver, and kidneys (P < 0.05). The relative concentrations of T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in the skeletal system (thighbone and costal cartilage) were also significantly higher than those in the heart, liver, and kidneys. The rats administered T-2 toxin showed rapid metabolism compared with that in rats administered HT-2 toxin, and the metabolic conversion rates in the different tissues were 68.20%-90.70%.
Research Highlight
A Tiny RNA Molecule with a Big Impact on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Susceptibility*
ZHUANG Guo Qing, WANG You Xin
2017, 30(11): 855-861. doi: 10.3967/bes2017.116