2018 Vol. 31, No. 2

2018, 31(2): 1-1.
2018, 31(2): 2-2.
Original Articles
The Serum Exosome Derived MicroRNA-135a, -193b, and-384 Were Potential Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
YANG Ting Ting, LIU Chen Geng, GAO Shi Chao, ZHANG Yi, WANG Pei Chang
2018, 31(2): 87-96. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.011
Objective MicroRNAs (miRs) are attractive molecules to be considered as one of the blood-based biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of this study was to explore their potential value as biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD. Methods The expression levels of exosomal miR-135a, -193b, and-384 in the serum from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients were measured with a real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) method. Results Both serum exosome miR-135a and miR-384 were up-regulated while miR-193b was down-regulated in serum of AD patients compared with that of normal controls. Exosome miR-384 was the best among the three miRs to discriminate AD, VaD, and PDD. Using the cut-off value could better interpret these laboratory test results than reference intervals in the AD diagnosis. ROC curve showed that the combination of miR-135a, -193b, and-384 was proved to be better than a particular one for early AD diagnosis. Conclusion Our results indicated that the exosomal miRs in the serum were not only potential biomarker of AD early diagnosis, but might also provide novel insights into the screen and prevention of the disease.
Short Form of Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale (NSS-SF): Reliability, Validity and Gender Invariance among Chinese Individuals
ZHONG Tao, CHUNG Pak-kwong, LIU Jing Dong
2018, 31(2): 97-105. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.012
Objective Independent from noise exposure, noise sensitivity plays a pivotal role in people's noise annoyance perception and concomitant health deteriorations. The present study empirically investigated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale-Short Form (CNSS-SF), the widely used inventory measuring individual differences in noise perception. Methods In total, 373 Chinese participants (age=21.41 ± 3.36) completed the online, anonymous questionnaire package. Examination of the CNSS-SF's reliability (internal consistency), factorial validity through validation and cross-validation, nomological validity and measurement invariance across gender groups were undertaken. Results The Cronbach alpha coefficients and composite reliabilities indicated sufficient reliability of the CNSS-SF. Two confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), in two randomly partitioned groups of participants, substantiated the factorial validity of the scale. The nomological validity of the scale was also corroborated by the significant positive association of its score with the trait anxiety score. Measurement invariance of the CNSS-SF was also found across genders via multi-group CFA. Conclusion Though not without limitations, findings from the present research provide promising evidence for the utility of the scale in measuring noise sensitivity among the Chinese population. The availability of the CNSS-SF can promote research related to environmental noise and health in China, as well as facilitate cross-cultural comparisons.
Serum Uric Acid is Associated with the Predicted Risk of Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease in a Community-dwelling Population without Diabetes
CHENG Di, DU Rui, WU Xue Yan, LIN Lin, PENG Kui, MA Li Na, XU Yu, XU Min, CHEN Yu Hong, BI Yu Fang, WANG Wei Qing, DAI Meng, LU Jie Li
2018, 31(2): 106-114. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.013
Objective To examine the association between serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular disease risk among individuals without diabetes. Methods We investigated the association between serum uric acid levels and the risk of prevalent cardiometabolic diseases, 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease, and 10-year risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) among 8, 252 participants aged ≥ 40 years without diabetes from Jiading district, Shanghai, China. Results Body mass index, waist circumference, blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and serum lipids increased progressively across the sex-specific quartiles of uric acid (all P trend < 0.05). Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile, those in the higher quartiles had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (all P trend < 0.05). A fully adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals in the highest quartile had an increased risk of predicted cardiovascular disease compared with those in the lowest quartile of uric acid. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs)[95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for the highest quartiles for high Framingham risk were 3.00 (2.00-4.50) in men and 2.95 (1.08-8.43) in women. The multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest quartile for high ASCVD risk were 1.93 (1.17-3.17) in men and 4.53 (2.57-7.98) in women. Conclusion Serum uric acid level is associated with an increased risk of prevalent obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease, and 10-year risk for ASCVD among Chinese adults without diabetes.
Potassium Bromate-induced Changes in the Adult Mouse Cerebellum Are Ameliorated by Vanillin
Hajer Ben Saad, Dorra Driss, Imen Jaballi, Hanen Ghozzi, Ons Boudawara, Michael Droguet, Christian Magné, Monsef Nasri, Khaled Mounir Zeghal, Ahmed Hakim, Ibtissem Ben Amara
2018, 31(2): 115-125. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.014
Objective The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of vanillin on behavioral changes, oxidative stress, and histopathological changes induced by potassium bromate (KBrO3), an environmental pollutant, in the cerebellum of adult mice. Methods The animals were divided into four groups:group 1 served as a control, group 2 received KBrO3, group 3 received KBrO3 and vanillin, and group 4 received only vanillin. We then measured behavioral changes, oxidative stress, and molecular and histological changes in the cerebellum. Results We observed significant behavioral changes in KBrO3-exposed mice. When investigating redox homeostasis in the cerebellum, we found that mice treated with KBrO3 had increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in the cerebellum. These effects were accompanied by decreased Na+-K+ and Mg2+ ATPase activity and antioxidant enzyme gene expression when compared to the control group. Additionally, there was a significant increase in cytokine gene expression in KBrO3-treated mice. Microscopy revealed that KBrO3 intoxication resulted in numerous degenerative changes in the cerebellum that were substantially ameliorated by vanillin supplementation. Co-administration of vanillin blocked the biochemical and molecular anomalies induced by KBrO3. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that vanillin is a potential therapeutic agent for oxidative stress associated with neurodegenerative diseases.
Bone Loss Induced by Simulated Microgravity, Ionizing Radiation and/or Ultradian Rhythms in the Hindlimbs of Rats
ZHANG Ya Nan, SHI Wen Gui, LI He, HUA Jun Rui, FENG Xiu, WEI Wen Jun, WANG Ju Fang, HE Jin Peng, LEI Su Wen
2018, 31(2): 126-135. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.015
Objective To better understand the pathological causes of bone loss in a space environment, including microgravity, ionizing radiation, and ultradian rhythms. Methods Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a baseline group, a control group, a hindlimb suspension group, a radiation group, a ultradian rhythms group and a combined-three-factor group. After four weeks of hindlimb suspension followed by X-ray exposure and/or ultradian rhythms, biomechanical properties, bone mineral density, histological analysis, microstructure parameters, and bone turnover markers were detected to evaluate bone loss in hindlimbs of rats. Results Simulated microgravity or combined-three factors treatment led to a significant decrease in the biomechanical properties of bones, reduction in bone mineral density, and deterioration of trabecular parameters. Ionizing radiation exposure also showed adverse impact while ultradian rhythms had no significant effect on these outcomes. Decrease in the concentration of the turnover markers bone alkaline phosphatase (bALP), osteocalcin (OCN), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRAP-5b) in serum was in line with the changes in trabecular parameters. Conclusion Simulated microgravity is the main contributor of bone loss. Radiation also results in deleterious effects but ultradian rhythms has no significant effect. Combined-three factors treatment do not exacerbate bone loss when compared to simulated microgravity treatment alone.
Three-dimensional Culture of Human Airway Epithelium in Matrigel for Evaluation of Human Rhinovirus C and Bocavirus Infections
CHEN Ya Xiong, XIE Guang Cheng, PAN Dong, DU Ya Rong, PANG Li Li, SONG Jing Dong, DUAN Zhao Jun, HU Bu Rong
2018, 31(2): 136-145. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.016
Objective Newly identified human rhinovirus C (HRV-C) and human bocavirus (HBoV) cannot propagate in vitro in traditional cell culture models; thus obtaining knowledge about these viruses and developing related vaccines are difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel platform for the propagation of these types of viruses. Methods A platform for culturing human airway epithelia in a three-dimensional (3D) pattern using Matrigel as scaffold was developed. The features of 3D culture were identified by immunochemical staining and transmission electron microscopy. Nucleic acid levels of HRV-C and HBoV in 3D cells at designated time points were quantitated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Levels of cytokines, whose secretion was induced by the viruses, were measured by ELISA. Results Properties of bronchial-like tissues, such as the expression of biomarkers CK5, ZO-1, and PCK, and the development of cilium-like protuberances indicative of the human respiration tract, were observed in 3D-cultured human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures, but not in monolayer-cultured cells. Nucleic acid levels of HRV-C and HBoV and levels of virus-induced cytokines were also measured using the 3D culture system. Conclusion Our data provide a preliminary indication that the 3D culture model of primary epithelia using a Matrigel scaffold in vitro can be used to propagate HRV-C and HBoV.
Letters to the Editor
Possible Transmission of Irkut Virus from Dogs to Humans
CHEN Teng, MIAO Fa Ming, LIU Ye, ZHANG Shou Feng, ZHANG Fei, LI Nan, HU Rong Liang
2018, 31(2): 146-148. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.017
Lyssaviruses, including Rabies virus, Duvenhage virus, European bat lyssavirus 1, European bat lyssavirus 2, Australian bat lyssavirus, and Irkut virus (IRKV), have caused human fatalities, but infection of IRKV in dogs has not been previously reported. In China, a dead dog that previously bit a human was determined to be infected with IRKV. Pathogenicity tests revealed that IRKVs can cause rabies-like disease in dogs and cats after laboratory infection. The close relationship between humans and pets, such as dogs and cats, may generate a new spillover-spreading route for IRKV infection. Therefore, additional attention should be paid to trans-species infection of IRKV between bats and dogs or dogs and humans through investigation of the prevalence and circulation patterns of IRKV in China.
Risk Factors for Prevalence of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in Diarrheic and Non-diarrheic Neonatal and Weaner Pigs, South Africa
Samuel T.Ogundare, Olubunmi G.Fasanmi, Folorunso O.Fasina
2018, 31(2): 149-154. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.018
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes neonatal and post-weaning diarrhea in pigs. In order to determine the risk factors, rectal/fecal swabs and visceral organs obtained from pig farms in two regions of South Africa were analyzed microbiologically against risk variables. Seventy-two percent of young pigs were found to be positive for ETEC toxin genes; estB (38.9%), estB/STAP (25%), and estB/LT (13.9%) were dominant. Risk factors for ETEC-diarrhea in pigs include: leaving sick piglets in a pen with healthy piglets [odds ratio (OR)= 33.52; P < 0.0001]; water spillage in pen (OR = 42.87; P < 0.0001); hypothermic piglets (OR = 7.29; P < 0.0001); runt piglets in pen with healthy littermates (OR = 3.65; P < 0.0001); and prolonged use of antibiotics (OR = 3.05; P = 0.05).
Evaluation of the Protective Efficacy of a Fused OmpK/Omp22 Protein Vaccine Candidate against Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in Mice
GUO San Jun, REN Shan, XIE Yong En
2018, 31(2): 155-158. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.019
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. Baumannii) is an emerging opportunistic pathogen responsible for hospital-acquired infections, and which now constitutes a sufficiently serious threat to public health to necessitate the development of an effective vaccine. In this study, a recombinant fused protein named OmpK/Omp22 and two individual proteins OmpK and Omp22 were obtained using recombinant expression and Ni-affinity purification. Groups of BALB/c mice were immunized with these proteins and challenged with a clinically isolated strain of A. baumannii. The bacterial load in the blood, pathological changes in the lung tissue and survival rates after challenge were evaluated. Mice immunized with OmpK/Omp22 fused protein provided significantly greater protection against A. baumannii challenge than those immunized with either of the two proteins individually. The results provide novel clues for future design of vaccines against A. baumannii.
Additive Benefits of Twice Forest Bathing Trips in Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure
MAO Gen Xiang, CAO Yong Bao, YANG Yan, CHEN Zhuo Mei, DONG Jian Hua, CHEN Sha Sha, WU Qing, LYU Xiao Ling, JIA Bing Bing, YAN Jing, WANG Guo Fu
2018, 31(2): 159-162. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.020
Chronic heart failure (CHF), a clinical syndrome resulting from the consequences of various cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is increasingly becoming a global cause of morbidity and mortality. We had earlier demonstrated that a 4-day forest bathing trip can provide an adjunctive therapeutic influence on patients with CHF. To further investigate the duration of the impact and the optimal frequency of forest bathing trips in patients with CHF, we recruited those subjects who had experienced the first forest bathing trip again after 4 weeks and randomly categorized them into two groups, namely, the urban control group (city) and the forest bathing group (forest). After a second 4-day forest bathing trip, we observed a steady decline in the brain natriuretic peptide levels, a biomarker of heart failure, and an attenuated inflammatory response as well as oxidative stress. Thus, this exploratory study demonstrated the additive benefits of twice forest bathing trips in elderly patients with CHF, which could further pave the way for analyzing the effects of such interventions in CVDs.
Study on a New Ultraviolet Sterilizer to the Surface Disinfection of the Ultrasound Probe
CHEN Gui Qiu, CHEN Yu Hao, YI Liang, YIN Jin, GAO Qiong, SONG Jiang Nan, LI Shi Kang, CHEN Pei Hou, GUO Gui Ping
2018, 31(2): 163-167. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.021
We studied the disinfection effect of a new ultraviolet (UV) sterilizer and its utilization on ultrasound probe surfaces. Carrier quantitative germicidal tests, simulated on-the-spot trials, and organic substance influence tests were used to carry out experimental observation. Artificially infected probes were disinfected using the sterilizer or a germicidal lamp for comparison. The total number and types of bacteria were determined and identified. Our results demonstrated the sterilizer had the best disinfection effect among three different disinfection methods in hospital. The sterilizer has been used in a hospital setting for 2 years with no notable damage to the ultrasound probe instrument. It has the advantages of fast disinfection, high disinfection effect, and good compatibility with the ultrasound instrument, worthy of being a promoted application in medical institutions.
Research Highlight
The Olfactory Receptor Pseudo-pseudogene: A Potential Therapeutic Target in Human Diseases
2018, 31(2): 168-170. doi: 10.3967/bes2018.022