2021 Vol. 34, No. 3

2021, 34(3): 0-0.
2021, 34(3): 1-2.
Japanese Encephalitis in China in the Period of 1950–2018: From Discovery to Control
CHEN Xiao Jing, WANG Huan Yu, LI Xiao Long, GAO Xiao Yan, LI Ming Hua, FU Shi Hong, HE Ying, LI Fan, YIN Qi Kai, XU Song Tao, WU Dan, LI Yi Xing, YIN Zun Dong, YANG Guang, LIANG Guo Dong
2021, 34(3): 175-183. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.024
Original Article
Combined Effect of Smoking and Obesity on Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Male Veterans: A 30-year Cohort Study
SAI Xiao Yong, GAO Feng, ZHANG Wen Yu, GAO Meng, YOU Jing, SONG Yu Jian, LUO Ting Gang, SUN Yuan Yuan
2021, 34(3): 184-191. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.012
  Objective  Evidence is lacking regarding the combined effects of smoking and obesity on mortality from coronary heart disease in male veterans. This study aimed to explore the combined effect of smoking and obesity on coronary heart disease mortality in male veterans in China.  Methods  A cohort of 1,268 male veterans from 22 veteran centers in Xi’an (Shaanxi Province, China) were followed up once every 2 years from February 1, 1987 to October 30, 2016. The endpoint was death from any cause. The hazard ratio (HR) of each risk factor and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model.  Results  The total follow-up was 24394.21 person-years; each subject was followed up for a mean duration of 19.24 years. By the end of the study, of the 1,268 veterans, 889 had died, 363 were alive, and 16 were lost to follow-up. Cox regression analysis results revealed that current smoking (HR: 1.552, 95% CI: 1.074–2.243), obesity (HR: 1.625, 95% CI: 1.024–2.581), and the combined effect of the two factors (HR: 2.828, 95% CI: 1.520–5.262) were associated with coronary heart disease mortality.  Conclusion  Our results suggest that obese veterans who smoke might be an important target population for coronary heart disease mortality control.
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor is Involved in the Proinflammatory Cytokine Response to Cadmium
2021, 34(3): 192-202. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.025
  Objective  To investigate involvement of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in the immunomodulatory effects of cadmium (Cd).  Methods  The effect of Cd on AhR activation (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA expression) was examined in lung leukocytes of Cd-exposed rats (5 and 50 mg/L, 30 d orally) and by in vitro leukocyte exposure. The involvement of AhR signaling in the effects of Cd on the interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) lung leukocyte response was investigated in vitro using the receptor antagonist CH-223191.  Results  Cd increased CYP1B1 (in vivo and in vitro) and CYP1A1 (in vitro) mRNA, indicating AhR involvement in the action of Cd. In response to Cd, lung leukocytes increased IL-6 and decreased TNF at the gene expression and protein levels, but decreased IL-1β production due to reduced NLRP3. The AhR antagonist CH-223191 abrogated the observed effects of Cd on the cytokine response. The absence of AhR reactivity and cytokine response to Cd of leukocytes from the lungs of a rat strain that is less sensitive to Cd toxicity coincided with a high AhR repressor mRNA level.   Conclusion  AhR signaling is involved in the lung leukocyte proinflammatory cytokine response to Cd. The relevance of the AhR to the cytokine response to Cd provides new insight into the mechanisms of Cd immunotoxicity.
Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Enhances Vasoconstriction by Altering Calcium Homeostasis in Cerebrovascular Smooth Muscle Cells under Simulated Microgravity
LIU Zi Fan, WANG Hai Ming, JIANG Min, WANG Lin, LIN Le Jian, ZHAO Yun Zhang, SHAO Jun Jie, ZHOU Jing Jing, XIE Man Jiang, LI Xin, ZHANG Ran
2021, 34(3): 203-212. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.001
  Objective  Exposure to microgravity results in postflight cardiovascular deconditioning in astronauts. Vascular oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported during this process. To elucidate the mechanism for this condition, we investigated whether mitochondrial oxidative stress regulates calcium homeostasis and vasoconstriction in hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat cerebral arteries.   Methods  Three-week HU was used to simulate microgravity in rats. The contractile responses to vasoconstrictors, mitochondrial fission/fusion, Ca2+ distribution, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) abundance, and the activities of voltage-gated K+ channels (KV) and Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) were examined in rat cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).   Results  An increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and a decrease of mitochondrial/sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ were observed in HU rat cerebral VSMCs. The abundance of fusion proteins (mitofusin 1/2 [MFN1/2]) and fission proteins (dynamin-related protein 1 [DRP1] and fission-mitochondrial 1 [FIS1]) was significantly downregulated and upregulated, respectively in HU rat cerebral VSMCs. The cerebrovascular contractile responses to vasoconstrictors were enhanced in HU rats compared to control rats, and IP3R protein/mRNA levels were significantly upregulated. The current densities and open probabilities of KV and BKCa decreased and increased, respectively. Treatment with the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant mitoTEMPO attenuated mitochondrial fission by upregulating MFN1/2 and downregulating DRP1/FIS1. It also decreased IP3R expression levels and restored the activities of the KV and BKCa channels. MitoTEMPO restored the Ca2+ distribution in VSMCs and attenuated the enhanced vasoconstriction in HU rat cerebral arteries.   Conclusion  The present results suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress enhances cerebral vasoconstriction by regulating calcium homeostasis during simulated microgravity.
MicroRNA-378a-3p Downregulation as a Novel Biomarker with Poor Clinical Outcomes in Cervical Cancer
ZHANG Liang, WU Zhen An
2021, 34(3): 213-221. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.026
  Objective  Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in gynecology. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of serum microRNA (miR)-378a-3p in CC and the effect of miR-378a-3p on tumor growth.  Methods  Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to measure the expression of miR-378a-3p in serum from patients with CC and healthy control subjects as well as from CC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. The association between serum miR-378a-3p levels and clinicopathological factors was analyzed. The correlation between miR-378a-3p levels and overall survival (OS) of CC patients was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The CC cell proliferation and migration abilities after transfection of miR-378a-3p mimics were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 and scratch wound healing assays, respectively. Tumor volume and weight in mice treated with miR-378a-3p were measured using a caliper and an electronic balance.  Results  MiR-378a-3p expression was downregulated in the serum and tissues of CC patients compared to that in healthy control subjects and normal tissues, respectively. Low expression of miR-378a-3p was positively correlated with large tumor size, advanced tumor stage, and lymph node metastasis. The OS of patients with low expression of miR-378a-3p was significantly lower than that of patients with high expression. Overexpression of miR-378a-3p suppressed the proliferation and migration of CC cells. In vivo studies indicated that overexpression of miR-378a-3p was associated with decreased tumor volume and weight in mice.  Conclusion  MiR-378a-3p downregulation is associated with the development and prognosis of CC, suggesting that it may be a potential biomarker for CC.
Letter to the Editor
Early Changes in Serologic Markers in Workers Exposed to Indium Compounds
LIU Nan, GUAN Yi, XUE Ling, LI Bin, YAO San Qiao
2021, 34(3): 222-226. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.027
A Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay to Identify and Genotype Brucella
TIAN Guo Zhong
2021, 34(3): 227-231. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.028
Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among Clinically Suspected Human Cases Presenting at Health Facilities in Namibia from 2012 to 2017
MADZINGIRA Oscar, FASINA Oludayo Folorunso, KALINDA Chester, VAN HEERDEN Henriette
2021, 34(3): 232-235. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.029
Decreased Plasma MANF Levels are Associated with Type 2 Diabetes
WANG Cong, PENG Jia Jia, MIAO He, LIU Dong Fang, ZHANG Li Li
2021, 34(3): 236-240. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.030
Ptpn22 Arg>Trp Polymorphism Improves Macrophage-Mediated Adipocyte Homeostasis
LI Mei Hang, SUN Chao, SUN Yuan Chao, NIU Yu Juan, WU Chuan Hong, POLYCHRONAKOS Constantin
2021, 34(3): 241-246. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.031
Investigating the Aggregation of Imported Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Henan, Central China
ZHAO Yu Ling, LI Su Hua, ZHU Xin, ZHOU Rui Min, YANG Cheng Yun, LIU Ying, NIU Yuan Na, LU De Ling, ZHANG Hong Wei, ZHAO Dong Yang
2021, 34(3): 247-249. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.032
Prenatal Hypoxia Altered Angiotensin II-mediated Vasoconstrictions via PKC/ERK/ROCK Pathways and Potassium Channels in Rat Offsrping Middle Cerebral Artery
LI Da Wei, BO Le, TU Qing, ZHOU An Wen, SHI Lin Ling, YANG Xiao Jun, MAO Cai Ping
2021, 34(3): 250-255. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.033