Objective To estimate the burden of cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases caused by specific etiologies in China.Methods Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016) were used. We evaluated the burden by analyzing age-sex-province-specific prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of 33 provinces in China.Results From 1990 to 2016, prevalence cases in thousands increased by 73.7% from 6833.3 (95% UI: 6498.0–7180.6) to 11869.6 (95% UI: 11274.6–12504.7). Age-standardized mortality and DALY rates per 100,000 decreased by 51.2% and 53.3%, respectively. Male and elderly people (aged ≥ 60 years) preponderance were found for prevalence, mortality, and DALYs. The number of prevalence cases, deaths, and DALYs due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) increased by 86.6%, 8.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. Also, age-standardized prevalence rates decreased in 31 provinces, but increased in Yunnan and Shandong. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) values were negatively correlated with age-standardized mortality and DALY rates by provinces in 2016; the correlation coefficients were −0.817 and −0.828, respectively.Conclusion Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases remain a huge health burden in China, with the increase of population and the aging of population. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the leading cause of the health burden in China.
Objectives The aims of this study were to assess the associations between parity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components and to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) on these associations.Methods A total of 5,674 women were enrolled from Jidong and Kailuan communities (Tangshan, Hebei) in Northern China. All participants completed standardized questionnaires, physical examination, and biochemical measurements. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the associations.Results Compared with women with parity of one, nulliparous women had decreased odds ratios (ORs); those with parity of two had odds of abdominal obesity [OR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–1.81, P < 0.001], high blood pressure (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03–1.54, P = 0.025), elevated fasting glucose levels (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.03–1.79, P = 0.029), and MetS (OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.13–1.73, P = 0.002); and those with parity of three or more had increased odds of elevated triglyceride levels (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.04–1.94, P = 0.027) and MetS (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.10–2.05, P = 0.011) after complete adjustment for confounders. Furthermore, BMI and age subgroups partially modified the associations between parity and MetS and its components.Conclusions Parity is positively associated with MetS and select components in women. BMI is an important modifier involved in the associations between parity and MetS.
Objective The present study aimed to investigate the association of red meat usual intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS), and explore the contribution of red meat usual intake to serum ferritin.Methods Based on the data from the longitudinal China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), 2,797 healthy adults aged 18–75 years without hypertension, diabetes, and MetS were selected in 2009 as subjects and follow-up studies were carried out till 2015. We used the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method to estimate the usual intake of foods. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the association between red meat usual intake and the risk of MetS. Quantile regression analysis was used to study the relationship between red meat consumption and serum ferritin levels.Results After adjusting for potential confounders, red meat, and fresh red meat were positively associated with the risk of MetS (RR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05–1.90 and RR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.02–1.85, respectively). These relationships showed increasing trend (P < 0.05). The level of serum ferritin increased significantly with the number of MetS components (P < 0.05). The quantile regression analysis showed that red meat and fresh red meat usual intake had a significant positive association with serum ferritin levels across the entire conditional serum ferritin distribution (P < 0.05). Processed red meat did not exhibit a similar association.Conclusion Higher red meat usual intake was associated with an increased risk of MetS and elevated serum ferritin levels.
Objective Hypoglossal nerve-facial nerve ‘side’-to-side neurorrhaphy is a new method for the treatment of potential incomplete facial paralysis after acoustic neuroma. However, there are differences in postoperative outcomes among patients. This study analysed preoperative factors that may influence the treatment outcomes of neurorrhaphy.Methods We performed a retrospective study of 53 patients who were treated by neurorrhaphy for facial paralysis after acoustic neuroma resection. After a one-year follow-up period, the patients were divided into two groups according to facial functional outcome: better recovery or ordinary recovery. We analysed the following factors: gender, age, tumour size, and characteristics, tumour adhesion to the facial nerve, the duration of facial paralysis (DFP) and F wave appearance prior to neurorrhaphy (F wave).Results Univariate analysis showed significant differences between the two groups in DFP (P = 0.0002), tumour adhesion to the facial nerve (P = 0.0079) and F waves (P = 0.0048). Logistic regression analysis of these factors also showed statistical significance with P values of 0.042 for the DFP, 0.043 for F waves, and 0.031 for tumour adhesion to the facial nerve.Conclusions Tumour adhesion to the facial nerve, F waves appearance and DFP prior to neurorrhaphy are the predominant factors that influence treatment outcomes.
Objective To evaluate the effects of incretin-based therapies on body weight as the primary outcome, as well as on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as secondary outcomes.Methods Databases including Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and clinicaltrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Standard pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA) were both carried out. The risk of bias (ROB) tool recommended by the Cochrane handbook was used to assess the quality of studies. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, and quality evaluation based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) were also performed.Results A total of 292 trials were included in this study. Compared with placebo, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitors (DPP-4Is) increased weight slightly by 0.31 kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05, 0.58] and had negligible effects on BMI and WC. Compared with placebo, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) lowered weight, BMI, and WC by −1.34 kg (95% CI: −1.60, −1.09), −1.10 kg/m2 (95% CI: −1.42, −0.78), and −1.28 cm (95% CI: −1.69, −0.86), respectively.Conclusion GLP-1 RAs were more effective than DPP-4Is in lowering the three indicators. Overall, the effects of GLP-1 RAs on weight, BMI, and WC were favorable.
Serum samples were tested for Bartonella henselae IgG antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence assays. We then analyzed associated risk factors. Serum samples were considered positive when reactive at a dilution of more than 1:320. Differences between groups and risk factors associated with Bartonella exposure were statistically analyzed using Chi-square tests and the generalized linear model. 122 of 1,260 samples (9.68%) were positive for B. henselae infection. The infection rate ranged from 0% to 30.43% and differed significantly among age groups (P < 0.01); infection rate in the 50–59 years group was significantly higher than that in other age groups. The seroprevalence of Bartonella varied significantly among sites within the four provinces, and the infection rate of field workers was significantly higher than that of urban workers.