Objective The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) based on optical microangiography (OMAG) measurements of macular vessels in normal eyes.Methods In this prospective cohort study, 40 eyes of 40 healthy volunteers underwent repeated OCTA (Cirrus HD-OCT 5000 angiography system, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.) scans on two separate visit days. On each visit day, the eyes were scanned three times. The following parameters were used to quantitatively describe the OCTA images of the superficial vascular network:vessel area density (VAD), vessel skeleton density (VSD), vessel diameter index (VDI), vessel perimeter index (VPI), vessel complexity index (VCI), flux, and foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Coefficient of variation (CV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated for evaluating intravisit and intervisit repeatability, as well as interobserver reproducibility.Results The measurements showed high repeatability[CVs ≤ 4.2% (intravisit) and ≤ 4.6% (intervisit)] and interobserver reproducibility (ICCs ≥ 0.923) for all parameters.Conclusion This study demonstrated good repeatability and reproducibility of OCTA based on OMAG for the measurement of superficial vessel parameters in normal eyes.
Objective To investigate the optimal timing for the repair of persistent incomplete facial paralysis by hypoglossal-facial 'side'-to-side neurorrhaphy in rats.Methods A total of 30 adult rats with crushed and bulldog-clamped facial nerve injury were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=6 each) that were subjected to injury without nerve repair or with immediate repair, 2-week-delayed repair, 4-week-delayed repair, or 8-week-delayed repair. Three months later, the effects of repair in each rat were evaluated by facial symmetry assessment, electrophysiological examination, retrograde labeling, and axon regeneration measurement.Results At 3 months after injury, the alpha angle significantly increased in the group of rats with 4-week-delayed repair compared with the other four groups. Upon stimulation of the facial nerve or Pre degenerated nerve, the muscle action potentials MAPs were recorded in the whisker pad muscle, and the MAP amplitude and area under the curve in the 4-week-delayed repair group were significantly augmented at 3 months post-injury. Similarly, the number of retrograde-labeled motor neurons in the facial and hypoglossal nuclei was quantified to be significantly greater in the 4-week-delayed repair group than in the other groups, and a large number of regenerated axons was also observed.Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that hemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy performed 4 weeks after facial nerve injury was most effective in terms of the functional recovery of axonal regeneration and activation of facial muscles.
Objective Undernutrition is highly prevalent among older people. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition in elderly Chinese residents and explore the relationship between undernutrition and dietary factors.Methods Data were collected from 2, 552 elderly people aged 75 years and over from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance during 2010-2012 using questionnaires, anthropometric measurement, and individual consecutive 3-day 24-hour dietary records.Results The present study showed that 10.5% of participants had undernutrition. The prevalence was higher among the population living in rural areas, those living in the South region, those who smoked, and those with low income levels. Most participants failed to meet the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes for energy (66.1%) and protein (72.1%). When comparing quartiles of food intake, high rice consumption[odds ratio (OR)=2.44, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.35-4.40)], animal oil intake (OR=1.60, 95% CI:1.18-2.17), and high fat intake from animal sources (OR=1.56, 95% CI:1.06-2.31) were positively associated with underweight whereas high wheat consumption (OR=0.44, 95% CI:0.26-0.74), a proper proportion (24%-32%) of energy intake from fat (OR=0.54, 95% CI:0.35-0.83), and high fat intake from plant sources (OR=0.67, 95% CI:0.46-0.99) were inversely related.Conclusion The prevalence of undernutrition was high among elderly Chinese people, especially in rural areas. Dietary factors, such as high consumption of rice, were associated with undernutrition.
Objective To explore whether the intake of dietary carotenoids could protect against skeletal fluorosis in Guizhou province in which coal-burning fluorosis is endemic.Methods A case-control study of 196 patients with skeletal fluorosis and 196 age and gender-matched controls was conducted in Zhijin, Guizhou Province. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to assess habitual dietary intake using a 75-item food frequency questionnaire and various covariates with structured questionnaires. Urinary fluoride was measured using an ion-selective electrode method. The genotype of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) rs11968525 was detected by TaqMan method.Results We observed significant dose-dependent inverse associations of skeletal fluorosis with intake of ǂ-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids (P-trend=0.002 to 0.018), whereas α-carotene and ǂ-cryptoxanthin intakes were not found to be related to skeletal fluorosis, after adjustment for potential confounders. The adjusted ORs and 95% CI of skeletal fluorosis for the highest versus lowest quartile were 0.30 (0.10, 0.86) for ǂ-carotene, 0.23 (0.08, 0.66) for lycopene, 0.26 (0.10, 0.75) for lutein/zeaxanthin and 0.34 (0.14, 0.74) for total carotenoids (all P-trend < 0.05). Stratified analyses showed that the protective effects of lutein/zeaxanthin and total carotenoids on skeletal fluorosis were more evident for individuals with the AG+AA genotypes of SOD2 (rs11968525).Conclusion Increased intakes of ǂ-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and total carotenoids are independently associated with a lower risk of coal-burning skeletal fluorosis. SOD2 (rs11968525) polymorphisms might modify the inverse associations between dietary carotenoids and skeletal fluorosis.
The aim of this study was to estimate the association between occupational, environmental, behavioral risk factors, and active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) patients. A matched case-control study was conducted in 86 CWP patients with active PTB and 86 CWP controls without TB. A standardized questionnaire was used for risk factors assessment. Conditioned logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between the risk factors and active PTB among CWP patients. The results showed that the stage of CWP, poor workplace ventilation, family history of TB, and exposure to TB were independent risk factors for active PTB in patients with CWP with which recommendations for improving work environments, and for case finding activities in patients with CWP could be made.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health issue worldwide. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycans are associated with risk factors for NAFLD, such as obesity and diabetes. A cross-sectional study involving 500 Han Chinese adults recruited from a community in Beijing was carried out to explore the association between IgG N-glycans and NAFLD. IgG N-glycosylation was significantly associated with NAFLD, with the disease showing a negative correlation with galactosylation (GP14, GP14n, and G2n), positive correlation with fuco sylation (FBG2n/G2n), and positive correlation with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) [FBG2n/FG2n and FBG2n/(FG2n+FBG2n)], after controlling age, gender, and prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. In other words, the present study showed a possible association between NAFLD and the loss of galactose and elevations of fucose and bisecting GlcNAc. Aberrant IgG glycosylation might therefore be a potential biomarker for the primary or secondary prevention of NAFLD.
A retrospective analysis was performed in two major HIV/AIDS referral hospitals in Beijing to evaluate the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections in HIV-infected patients. A total of 627 patients' data were reviewed, and 102 (16.3%) patients were diagnosed with culture-confirmed mycobacterial infection, including 84 with MTB, 16 with NTM, and 2 with both MTB and NTM. The most frequent clinical complication by mycobacterial infection was pulmonary infection (48/102, 47.1%). The overall rates of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) were 11.9% and 3.4%, respectively. This study underlines the urgent need to intensify screening for mycobacteria coinfection with HIV and to prevent the spread of drug-resistant TB among HIV-infected patients.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the China-PAR equations in predicting the 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Inner Mongolians population. A population-based, prospective cohort of 2, 589 Mongolians were followed up from 2003 to 2012. Participants were categorized into 4 subgroups according to their 10-year CVD risks calculated using the China-PAR equations: < 5%, 5%-9.9%, 10%-19.9%, and ≥ 20%. The China-PAR equations discriminated well with good C statistics (range, 0.76-0.86). The adjusted hazard ratios for CVD showed an increasing trend among the 4 subgroups (P for trend < 0.01). However, the China-PAR equations underestimated the 10-year CVD risk in Mongolians, and the calibration was unsatisfactory (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 = 19.98, P < 0.01 for men, χ2 = 46.58, P < 0.001 for women). The performance of the China-PAR equations warrants further validation in other ethnic groups in China.
There is still a need for better protection against or mitigation of the effects of ionizing radiation following conventional radiotherapy or accidental exposure. The objective of our current study was to investigate the possible roles of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, ilomastat, in the protection of mice from total body radiation (TBI), and the underlying protective mechanisms. Ilomastat treatment increased the survival of mice after TBI. Ilomastat pretreatment promoted recovery of hematological and immunological cells in mice after 6 Gy γ-ray TBI. Our findings suggest the potential of ilomastat to protect against or mitigate the effects of radiation.
This study explored the association between the lncRNA HOTAIR polymorphism and susceptibility to lead poisoning in a Chinese population. We speculated that lead poisoning caused elevated levels of oxidative stress, which, in turn, activate the HOTAIR gene to cause apoptosis. Three lncRNA HOTAIR tagSNPs (rs7958904, rs4759314, and rs874945) were genotyped by TaqMan genotyping technology in 113 lead-sensitive and 113 lead-resistant Chinese workers exposed to lead. Rs7958904 was significantly associated with susceptibility to lead poisoning (P= 0.047). The rs7958904 G allele had a protective effect compared with the C allele and reduced the risk of lead poisoning (P= 0.016). Rs7958904 may act as a potential biomarker for predicting the risk of lead poisoning and distinguishing lead-sensitive individuals from lead-resistant individuals.
Chinese ferret badger (FB)-transmitted rabies is a serious threat to public health in southeast China. Although mostly associated with dogs, the rabies virus (RABV) presents genetic diversity and has a significantly wide host range in China. Instead of the dog- and wildlife-associated China Ⅱ lineage in the past decades, the China Ⅰ lineage has become the main epidemic group hosted and transmitted by dogs. In this study, four new lineages, including 43 RABVs from FBs, have been classified within the dog-dominated China Ⅰ lineage since 2014. FB RABVs have been previously categorized in the China Ⅱ lineage. Moreover, FB-hosted viruses seem to have become the main independent FB-associated clade in the phylogenetic tree. This claim suggests that the increasing genetic diversity of RABVs in FBs is a result of the selective pressure from coexisting dog rabies. FB transmission has become complicated and serious with the coexistence of dog rabies. Therefore, apart from targeting FB rabies, priority should be provided by the appropriate state agencies to perform mass immunization of dog against rabies.
A magnetic metal organic framework (MMOF) was synthesized and used to separate Sr2+ in aqueous solution. The shape and structure of prepared Fe3O4@UiO-66-NH2 were characterized, and the absorbed concentration of strontium was determined through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results indicated that Fe3O4 and UiO-66-NH2 combined through chemical bonding. The experimental adsorption results for separation of Sr2+ in aqueous solution indicated that the adsorption of Sr2+ to Fe3O4@UiO-66-NH2 increased drastically from pH 11 to pH 13. The adsorption isotherm model indicated that the adsorption of Sr2+ conformed to the Freundlich isotherm model (R2 = 0.9919). The MMOF thus inherited the superior qualities of magnetic composites and metal organic frameworks, and can easily be separated under an external magnetic field. This MMOF thus has potential applications as a magnetic adsorbent for low level radionuclide 90Sr.