2020 Vol. 33, No. 10

2020, 33(10)
2020, 33(10)
Original Article
Assessment on the Effects of Hepatitis B Prevention and Control Measures in Western China: A Comparison of Three Population-based Serosurveys
CHEN Hui, LIU Nan, JI Zhao Hua, PU Zhong Shu, GUO Zhi Wen, GAO Jie, SHAO Zhong Jun, LIU Yi Wen, YAN Yong Ping
2020, 33(10): 735-744. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.098
  Objective  Despite the remarkable progress in efforts to control disease spread, the nationwide elimination of hepatitis B in China is still hindered by the persistently high rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Western China. This study aimed to evaluate the strategy of hepatitis B prevention and control in Western China and identify potential areas and strategies for improvement.  Methods  Susceptible population vaccination, health education, professional training of doctors, and other prevention and control measures have been implemented in Wuwei city since 2010. Data were obtained from three representative cross-sectional serosurveys conducted in 2010, 2013, and 2015. The serum samples were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to detect the following seromarkers: HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Estimates of variance were determined using Taylor series linearization methods.  Results  The three serosurveys revealed decreases in the prevalence of HBsAg (7.19% in 2010 vs. 6.51% in 2013 vs. 5.87% in 2015) and anti-HBc positivity (43.89% vs. 32.87% vs. 28.46%) and an increase in the prevalence of anti-HBs positivity (49.07% vs. 53.66% vs. 53.72%) over time. From 2010 to 2015, the legally reported incidence of hepatitis B in Wuwei city decreased from 686.53/100,000 to 53.72/100,000. Notably, persistently high HBsAg-positive rates (above 5.40%) were observed among subjects aged 20–69 years old in the three serosurveys; the prevalence of HBsAg was above 1% among children younger than 10 years old. Furthermore, rural subjects had higher rates of HBsAg and anti-HBc positivity than their urban counterparts (6.04% vs. 4.83% and 30.26% vs. 20.35%, respectively) in 2015 but had a lower rate of anti-HBs positivity (49.68 vs. 55.18%). Multivariate regression analysis showed that age, urban and rural areas, and education level were the main factors affecting HBV infection.  Conclusion  Although vaccine-based prevention and control measures reduced the rate of HBV infection in Wuwei City over time, the hepatitis B infection rate in children younger than 10 years was still higher than the national average level. Therefore, the prevention and control of mother-to-child transmission and the management of the infected should be the focus of future prevention and control work.
Calculating the Number of Pregnant Women Receiving Standardized Services for PMTCT of HIV in Liangshan Prefecture, Based on the Equivalent Method
QU Shui Ling, WANG Ai Ling, PAN Xiao Ping, WANG XiaoYan, LUO Hui Ming, ZHANG Tong
2020, 33(10): 745-749. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.099
  Objective  To calculate the number of pregnant women who receive standardized prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services for HIV annually.  Methods  HIV-positive pregnant women in six counties of Liangshan Prefecture in 2017 were selected as study subjects. The entire process, from when the subjects first received the PMTCT of HIV services to the end, was divided into four stages, which were further divided into 25 phases. The equivalent coefficient was used to indicate the weight of workload in each phase. Seven experts were invited to score the equivalent coefficient; the number of pregnant women who received standardized services to prevent the transmission of HIV was calculated.  Results  A total of 663 HIV-positive pregnant women were registered in six Liangshan Prefecture counties in 2017. This figure was converted into 7,780 person-months devoted to HIV-positive pregnant women, with 260 person-months (3.34%) spent on the first antenatal care, 1,510 person-months (19.41%) during pregnancy, 378 person-months (4.86%) on delivery, and 5,632 person-months (72.39%) on post-partum period. The equivalent coefficient calculation showed that 314 HIV-positive pregnant women received standardized PMTCT services.  Conclusion  The number of pregnant women receiving standardized services for the PMTCT of HIV can be calculated accurately using the equivalent method to identify the gap between the level of PMTCT of HIV intervention services needed and the actual workload.
Serum Metabolomic Indicates Potential Biomarkers and Metabolic Pathways of Pediatric Kashin-Beck Disease
WANG Yu Meng, WANG Wei Yi, SUN Li Yan, LI Qiang, ZHAO Zhi Jun, HU Jian, ZHANG Rong Yu, WANG Li Hua
2020, 33(10): 750-759. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.100
  Objective  To explore potential serum biomarkers of children with Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) and the metabolic pathways to which the biomarkers belong.  Methods  A two-stage metabolomic study was employed. The discovery cohort included 56 patients, 51 internal controls, and 50 external controls. The metabolites were determined by HPLC-(Q-TOF)-MS and confirmed by Human Metabolome Databases (HMDB) and Metlin databases. MetaboAnalyst 3.0 and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database were used to analyze the metabolic pathways of the candidate metabolites. The use of HPLC-(Q-TRAP)-MS enabled quantitative detection of the target metabolites which were chosen using the discovery study and verified in another independent verification cohort of 31 patients, 41 internal controls, and 50 external controls.  Results  Eight candidate metabolites were identified out in the discovery study, namely kynurenic acid, N-α-acetylarginine, 6-hydroxymelatonin, sphinganine, ceramide, sphingosine-1P, spermidine, and glycine. These metabolites exist in sphingolipid, glutathione, and tryptophan metabolic pathways. In the second-stage study, five candidate metabolites were validated, including kynurenic acid, N-α-acetylarginine, sphinganine, spermidine, and sphingosine-1P. Except for spermidine, all substances exhibited low expression in the case group compared with the external control group, and the difference in levels of sphinganine, spermidine, and sphingosine-1P was statistically significant.  Conclusion  The direction of change of levels of sphinganine, spermidine, and sphingosine-1P in the two-stage study cohorts was completely consistent, and the differences were statistically significant. Therefore, these substances can be used as potential biomarkers of KBD. Furthermore, these results raise the possibility that sphingolipid metabolic pathways may be closely related to KBD.
Efficacy of Essential Trace Elements Supplementation on Mineral Composition, Sperm Characteristics, Antioxidant Status, and Genotoxicity in Testis of Tebuconazole-treated Rats
2020, 33(10): 760-770. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.101
  Objective  This research was performed to evaluate the effect of tebuconazole (TBZ) on reproductive organs of male rats and to assess the protective role of combined essential trace elements in alleviating the detrimental effect of TBZ on male reproductive function.   Methods  For this purpose, 48 rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg TBZ, TBZ supplemented with zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe), TBZ + (Se + Zn); TBZ + Cu; or TBZ + Fe. The experiment was conducted for 30 consecutive days.   Results  TBZ caused a significant perturbation in mineral levels and reduction in reproductive organs weights, plasma testosterone level, and testicular antioxidant enzyme activities. The TBZ-treated group also showed a significant increase in sperm abnormalities (count, motility, and viability percent), plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone concentrations, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and severe DNA degradation in comparison with the controls. Histopathologically, TBZ caused testis impairments. Conversely, treatment with trace elements, in combination or alone, improved the reproductive organ weights, sperm characteristics, TBZ-induced toxicity, and histopathological modifications in testis.   Conclusion  TBZ exerts significant harmful effects on male reproductive system. The concurrent administration of trace elements reduces testis dysfunction, fertility, and toxicity induced by TBZ.
Letter to the Editor
Environmental Monitoring of A Laboratory for New Coronavirus Nucleic Acid Testing
NING Pei Yong, YU Ai Ping, WANG Yuan, GUO Li Ru, SHAN Dan, KONG Mei, YU Ling Qi, LYU Li Kun, ZOU Ming, SU Xu, FEI Chun Nan, ZHOU Yu Hui, WANG Bai Qi
2020, 33(10): 771-774. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.102
Factors Affected HIV Testing and HIV Infection among Internet-based Self-testing MSM Who Never Tested for HIV in Beijing, China
JIN Xia, XIAO Dong, XU Jun Jie, SMITH M Kumi, XIU Xiang Fei, DING Zheng Wei, CAO Ning Xiao, BAO Yu Gang
2020, 33(10): 775-779. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.103
Prevalence of Tuberculosis among Close Contacts of Index Cases in 27 Universities in Beijing, China, 2017–2018
ZHAO Fei, ZHANG Zhi Guo, MA Shu Bo, YANG Zhen, HE Yan Ping, WANG Lu Qin, OWITI Philip, MA Chao, LI Tao, DU Xin, ZHANG Can You, CHENG Jun, WANG Li Xia, HE Guang Xue, ZHANG Hui, LI Ke Xin
2020, 33(10): 780-784. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.104
Multidimensional Analysis of Risk Factors Associated with Breast Cancer in Beijing, China: A Case-Control Study
LI Ai Hua, YE Yan, CHEN Jun, SUN Zhi Feng, YUN Shui Ying, TIAN Xing Kuan, HU Zai Fang, Sarah Robbins SCOTT, YU Gui Xin, HU Li, WANG Zi Huan, SUN Li Geng, SHEN Zhuang
2020, 33(10): 785-790. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.105
Recent Transmission Analysis of 66 MDR-TB Strains Using the 15-locus MIRU-VNTR Method
JIA Qing Jun, ZENG Mei Chun, LI Qing Chun, WU Yi Fei, HUANG Yin Yan, LU Min, AI Li Yun, XIE Li
2020, 33(10): 791-795. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.106
A Pilot Test for A One-year Cognitive Training Intervention in Elderly Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment
2020, 33(10): 796-802. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.107
Antineoplastic Drug Handling: Higher Risk for Healthcare Workers in Tunisia than in France?
Kaouther Zribi, Laetitia Minh Mai Le, Asok Rajkumar, Hail Aboudagga, Mounir Frikha, Amandine Dietrich, Emna Zribi, Fathi Safta, Eric Caudron
2020, 33(10): 803-806. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.108
Concentration of Selected Elements in the Tissues of the Knee Joint
2020, 33(10): 807-811. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.109
Safflower Yellow Compounds Alleviate Okadaic Acid-Induced Impairment of Neurite Outgrowth in Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells
WANG Zhen Hua, SHI Xiao Bing, LI Gang, HAO Xue Yan, YUAN Zhen Zhen, CAO Xiao Hai, WANG Hong Lun, LI Ji, MA Cheng Jun
2020, 33(10): 812-816. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.110
Application Research on Gated Recurrent Unit Deep Learning Prediction and Graded Early Warning of Emergency Department Visits Based on Meteorological Environmental Data
LI Jing, LI Bao Yu, WEI Zi Jian, ZHAO Yu Zhu, LI Tan Shi
2020, 33(10): 817-820. doi: 10.3967/bes2020.111