Objective To analyze the 2022 multiple-country monkeypox outbreak and assess its importation risk into China.Methods Data was from United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We described the global epidemic and calculated concentration index to measure economic-related inequality. Importation risk into China was evaluated and ranked by using risk matrix method and Borda count method, respectively.Results As of July 29, 2022, of 79 countries or territories, 39 (49.37%, 39/79), 17 (21.52%, 17/79), 6 (7.59%, 6/79), 12 (15.19%, 12/79), and 5 (6.33%, 5/79) country or territories identified cases < 10, 10–, 51–, 101–, and > 1,000. There were economic-related health disparities exist in the distribution of cases (the concentration index = 0.42, P = 0.027), and the inequality disadvantageous to the rich (pro-poor). There were 12 (15.38%, 12/78), 15 (19.23%, 15/78), 6 (7.69%, 6/78), and 45 (57.69%, 45/78) countries or territories with extremely high, high, moderate, and low importation risk. United States and France ranked first with the highest Borda points of 156, and counts of zero.Conclusion Of 78 countries or territories, the key attention need be paid to the United States and France, relatively. As the epidemic progresses, preparing prevention and control measures to further reduce importation risk was crucial.
Objective The aim was to identify the gene expressions of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to study its possible pathogenic mechanism on atherosclerosis using microarray technology.Methods The gene expression differences in HCMV AD169 strain-infected HUVECs were studied by the microarray technology to explore the potential molecular mechanism of HCMV infection. The qPCRs were performed to verify the transcriptome results.Results A total of 2,583 differentially expressed genes, including 407 down-regulated genes and 2,176 up-regulated genes, were detected by the systematic bioinformatics analysis. The Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses showed that the significantly differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in regulating protein kinase activity, inflammatory response, ubiquitination, protein phosphorylation, cell metabolism, and exosomes, among which 12 genes had significant changes and were screened by protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis and verified by qPCR. The experimental qPCR results were consistent with the microarray results.Conclusion The GO and KEGG analyses revealed that the regulation of protein kinase activity, inflammatory response, ubiquitination, protein phosphorylation, and cell metabolism played important roles in the process of endothelial cell infection. Furthermore, 12 genes were involved in the process of HCMV infection of endothelial cells and contributed to the current understanding of the infection and pathogenic mechanisms of atherosclerosis.
Objective The study aimed to analyze the applicability of the World Health Organization's exclusionary guidelines for Urinary creatinine (Ucr) in the general Chinese population, and to identify Ucr related factors.Methods We conduct a cross-sectional study using baseline data from 21,167 participants in the China National Human Biomonitoring Program. Mixed linear models and restricted cubic splines (RCS) were used to analyze the associations between explanatory variables and Ucr concentration.Results The geometric mean and median concentrations of Ucr in the general Chinese population were 0.90 g/L and 1.01 g/L, respectively. And 9.36% samples were outside 0.3–3.0 g/L, including 7.83% below the lower limit and 1.53% above the upper limit. Middle age, male, obesity, smoking, higher frequency of red meat consumption and chronic kidney disease were associated significantly with higher concentrations of Ucr. Results of the RCS showed Ucr was positively and linearly associated with body mass index, inversely and linearly associated with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides level, and glomerular filtration rate, and were non-linearly associated with triiodothyronine.Conclusion The age- and gender-specific cut-off values of Ucr that determine the validity of urine samples in the general Chinese population were recommended. To avoid introducing bias into epidemiologic associations, the potential predictors of Ucr observed in the current study should be considered when using Ucr to adjust for variations in urine dilution.
Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the serum uric acid levels and the prevalence of hyperuricemia among Chinese adults in 2015 and compare the differences between urban and rural areas, as well as the differences between eastern, central, and western regions.Methods A national representative sample of 180,208 participants were included using a stratified, multistage, and random sampling method. The demographic characteristics and blood samples were collected to determine the serum uric acid levels and prevalence of hyperuricemia among subgroups using complicated sampling weight. A t-test or ANOVA was used for normally-distributed data. The Kruskal-Wallis rank test was used for skewed-distributed data. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test was used to compare the difference in categorical variables.Results The weighted mean uric acid level in Chinese adults was 310.4 μmol/L (317.5 μmol/L in urban areas and 302.9 μmol/L in rural areas). The weighted average values of uric acid in eastern, central, and western China were 315.5 μmol/L, 303.5 μmol/L, and 310.4 μmol/L, respectively. The weighted prevalence of hyperuricemia in Chinese adults was 14.6%, with a prevalence of 16.5% in urban areas and 12.5% in rural areas. The weighted prevalence of hyperuricemia in eastern, central, and western China was 16.0%, 12.5%, and 14.8%, respectively.Conclusion The uric acid level in Chinese adults is relatively high. Effective actions are warranted to improve this metabolic abnormality.
Objective The relationship between sodium intake and cardiovascular (CV) events remains unconfirmed. Therefore, we carried out a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for evaluating the potential impact of 24-hour sodium excretion on CV risk. Besides, 24-hour sodium excretion was used to replace daily sodium diet intake.Methods We searched ISI Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library. Our study included cohort studies reporting hazard ratio (HR). The random-effects model was used for summarizing the total relative risks (RRs) between the included studies. In addition, the generalized least-squares regression was employed to fit the study model.Results A total of 9 studies involving 645,006 participants were included in this study. A significant non-linear relationship was observed between sodium excretion and CV events (Pnon-linearity< 0.001). In studies collecting 24-h urine samples, the sodium excretion and CV events risk were associated linearly (RR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.07).Conclusion In a linear dose-response manner, every 1 g increase in sodium intake was associated with an increased risk of CV events up to 4%. Further studies are required to validate our conclusions further.
Objective Dexmedetomidine (DEX), the most specific α2-adrenergic receptor agonist widely used for its sedative and analgesic properties, has been reported to upregulate HIF-1α expression to protect hypoxic and ischemic tissues. However, it is largely unclear whether DEX can also upregulate Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) expression and its downstream vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) in cancer tissues with oxygen-deficient tumor microenvironment.Methods We used SMMC-7721 cells, MHCC97-H cells, and a mouse model of orthotopic hepatic carcinoma to explore the effect of DEX on angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry (VM) and its mechanism. Under normoxic (20% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions, DEX was used to intervene cells, and yohimbine was used to rescue them.Results The results showed that DEX promoted angiogenesis and VM in human liver cancer cells within a certain dose range, and the addition of yohimbine inhibited this effect. DEX could activate HIF-1α/VEGFA pathway, which was further verified by silencing HIF-1α. Consistently, in vivo results also showed that DEX can up-regulate HIF-1α/VEGFA expression, and enhance the number of VM channels and microvessel density (MVD).Conclusion We believe that HIF-1α/VEGFA might be an important signaling pathway by which DEX promotes angiogenesis and VM formation in human hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas α2-adrenergic receptor mediation might be the critical mechanisms.
Objective This study aimed to determine the spatiotemporal distribution and epidemiological characteristics of hospital admissions for carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) in Guangdong, China, from 2013 to 2020.Methods Data on age- and sex- specific numbers of hospital admissions due to COP in Guangdong (2013–2020) were collected. Daily temperatures were downloaded through the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System. We analyzed temporal trends through time series decomposition and used spatial autocorrelation analysis to detect spatial clustering. The distributed lag nonlinear model was used to quantify the effects of temperature.Results There were 48,854 COP admissions over the study period. The sex ratio (male to female) was 1:1.74. The concentration ratios (M) ranged from 0.73–0.82. The highest risk occurred in January (season index = 3.59). Most cases were concentrated in the northern mountainous areas of Guangdong with high-high clustering. COP in the study region showed significant spatial autocorrelation, and the global Moran’s I value of average annual hospital admission rates for COP was 0.447 (P < 0.05). Low temperatures were associated with high hospital admission rates for COP, with a lag lasting 7 days. With a lag of 0 days, the effects of low temperatures [5th (12 °C)] on COP were 2.24–3.81, as compared with the reference temperature [median (24 °C)].Conclusion COP in Guangdong province showed significant temporal and spatial heterogeneity. Low temperature was associated with a high risk of COP, and the influence had a lag lasting 7 days.