Objective The association between lipoprotein (a)[Lp(a)] levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, especially in the Asian population. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the association between Lp(a) levels and MetS in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese cohort.Methods A cross-sectional study of 10, 336 Chinese adults aged 40 years or older was conducted in Jiading District, Shanghai, China. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between serum Lp(a) levels and MetS.Results In the overall population, 37.5% of participants had MetS. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile of serum Lp(a) levels, those in the highest quartile had a lower prevalence of MetS (30.9% vs. 46.9%, P for trend < 0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that compared with participants in the bottom quartile of serum Lp(a) levels, those in the top quartile had decreased odds ratio (OR) for prevalent MetS[multivariate-adjusted OR 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.39-0.51); P < 0.0001]. Additionally, Lp(a) level was conversely associated with the risk of central obesity, high fasting glucose, high triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol, but not with hypertension. Stratified analyses suggested that increasing levels of Lp(a) was associated with decreased risk of MetS in all the subgroups.Conclusion Serum Lp(a) level was inversely associated with the risk of prevalent MetS in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese cohort.
Objective The primary objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) among Chinese children aged 12-17 years.Methods A semi-quantitative 72-food item FFQ was developed for children aged 12-17 years. The reliability and validity of this FFQ were evaluated against 24-h dietary recalls (24 h DRs) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients. We administered two FFQs and three DRs to children (N=160) over a period of 1 month to evaluate the reliability and validity. Reliability was examined by quartile agreement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and validity was examined by quartile agreement, Bland-Altman plots and correlation with DRs.Results For reliability, the ICCs between the two FFQs ranged from 0.21 to 0.76 for foods and nutrients, and the quartile agreement ranged from 70.0% to 95.0% in the same or adjacent quartiles. Spearman's correlation coefficients of foods and nutrients between the second FFQ and the 24 h DRs ranged from -0.04 to 0.59. The Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement across the range of intakes among nutrients. The quartile agreement ranged from 50.0% to 100.0%, with infrequent misclassification.Conclusion The FFQ assessment of dietary intakes demonstrated acceptable relative validity and high reproducibility for Chinese children aged 12-17 years.
Objective To explore the dynamic impacts of simulated microgravity (SM) on different vital brain regions of rats.Methods Microgravity was simulated for 7 and 21 days, respectively, using the tail-suspension rat model. Histomorphology, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines and the expression of some key proteins were determined in hippocampus, cerebral cortex and striatum.Results 21-day SM decreased brain derived neurotrophic factor and induced neuron atrophy in the cerebral cortex. Strong oxidative stress was triggered at day 7 and the oxidative status returned to physiological level at day 21. Inflammatory cytokines were gradually suppressed and in striatum, the suppression was regulated partially through c-Jun/c-Fos.Conclusion The results revealed that the significant impacts of SM on rat brain tissue depended on durations and regions, which might help to understand the health risk and to prevent brain damage for astronauts in space travel.
Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral cadmium (Cd) ingestion on the pulmonary immune response.Methods Determination of Cd content in lungs and histopathological evaluation of the tissue was performed in rats following 30-day oral Cd administration (5 and 50 mg/L). Antioxidant enzyme defense (superoxide dismutase and catalase), cell infiltration, and production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon (IFN)-γ, as well as the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), and various cytokines[interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17] were investigated.Results Cd caused tissue damage and cell infiltration in the lungs, and this damage was more pronounced at higher doses. Cd deposition resulted in lung inflammation characterized by a dose-dependent IL-1β increase in lung homogenates, increased TNF levels at both doses, and IL-6 stimulation at low doses with inhibition observed at higher doses. Cd exerted differential effects on lung leukocytes isolated by enzyme digestion, and these effects were characterized by a lack of change in the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, an inhibition of IL-1β and TNF, and stimulation of MPO and IFN-γ. The higher capacity of Cd-exposed lung cells to respond to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis was demonstrated in vitro.Conclusion The potential of ingested Cd to exert both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects on pulmonary tissue inflammation and immune reactivity highlights the complex immunomodulatory actions of this metal.
Objective To investigate the molecular characteristics and intracellular growth ability of Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) strains from 1989 to 2016 in Sichuan Province, China.Methods Seventy-nine isolates of L. pneumophila were collected from environmental and clinical sources, including cooling towers, hot springs, bath water, fountains, and patients, and identified with 16S rRNA gene analysis and serum agglutination assay. The isolates were then typed by Sequence-Based Typing (SBT), and Genotyping of forty-two LP1 strains were analyzed by means of multiple-locus VNTR analysis with 8 loci (MLVA-8). All strains were further analyzed for two virulence genes:Legionella vir homologue (lvh) and repeats in structural toxin (rtxA). The intracellular growth ability of 33 selected isolates was determined by examining their interaction with J774 cells.Results All isolates were identified to L. pneumophila including 11 serogroups, among which the main serogroup were LP1, accounting for 54.43%. Thirty-three different sequence types (STs) from five main clonal groups and five singletons were identified, along with 8 different MLVA patterns. Both the lvh and rtxA loci were found in all 79 strains. Thirty isolates showed high intracellular growth ability in J774 cells.ConclusionL. pneumophila is a potential threat to public health, and effective control and prevention strategies are urgently needed.
Objective To evaluate the effect of intranasal immunization with CTA1-DD as mucosal adjuvant combined with H3N2 split vaccine.Methods Mice were immunized intranasally with PBS (negative control), or H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) alone, or CTA1-DD (5 μg/mouse) alone, or H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) plus CTA1-DD (5 μg/mouse). Positive control mice were immunized intramuscularly with H3N2 split vaccine (3 μg/mouse) and alum adjuvant. All the mice were immunized twice, two weeks apart. Then sera and mucosal lavages were collected. The specific HI titers, IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgG subtypes were examined by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-4 were test by ELISpot. In addition, two weeks after the last immunization, surivival after H3N2 virus lethal challenge was measured.Results H3N2 split vaccine formulated with CTA1-DD could elicit higher IgM, IgG and hemagglutination inhibition titers in sera. Furthermore, using CTA1-DD as adjuvant significantly improved mucosal secretory IgA titers in bronchoalveolar lavages and vaginal lavages. Meanwhile this mucosal adjuvant could enhance Th-1-type responses and induce protective hemagglutination inhibition titers. Notably, the addition of CTA1-DD to split vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal infection by the H3N2 virus.Conclusion CTA1-DD could promote mucosal, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, which supports the further development of CTA1-DD as a mucosal adjuvant for mucosal vaccines.