Objective Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is an air pollutant that has become of great concern in recent years. Numerous studies have found that PM2.5 may contribute to lung cancer, but the pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we explored the roles of exosomes from bronchial epithelial cells in PM2.5-promoted lung cancer metastasis.Methods Exosomes were isolated from cell supernatants. An animal model of lung metastasis (established by tail vein injection of A549-luc) and in vitro studies with lung cancer cell lines were used to investigate the effects of exosomes derived from PM2.5-treated human bronchial epithelial cells (PHBE-exo).Results The animal experiments revealed that PHBE-exo-treated mice showed stronger luciferase activity and a larger relative metastatic region in the lungs, thus indicating that PHBE-exo promoted the metastatic potential of lung cancer. Additionally, PHBE-exo promoted the migration, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells, in a manner mediated by activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.Conclusion These results implied that PM2.5 may promote the development of lung cancer through exosomes derived from bronchial epithelial cells, thus providing a potential interventional target for lung cancer. These findings broadened our understanding of cancer-promoting mechanisms of environmental pollutants.
Objective Most acute promyelocytic leukemia cases are characterized by the PML-RARa fusion oncogene and low white cell counts in peripheral blood.Methods Based on the frequent overexpression of miR-125-family miRNAs in acute promyelocytic leukemia, we examined the consequence of this phenomenon by using an inducible mouse model overexpressing human miR-125b.Results MiR-125b expression significantly accelerates PML-RARa-induced leukemogenesis, with the resultant induced leukemia being partially dependent on continued miR-125b overexpression. Interestingly, miR-125b expression led to low peripheral white cell counts to bone marrow blast percentage ratio, confirming the clinical observation in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients.Conclusion This study suggests that dysregulated miR-125b expression is actively involved in disease progression and pathophysiology of acute promyelocytic leukemia, indicating that targeting miR-125b may represent a new therapeutic option for acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Objectives Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a widespread infectious disease that causes a significant disease burden on society. To achieve early intervention and to prevent outbreaks of disease, we propose a novel warning model that can accurately predict the incidence of HFMD.Methods We propose a spatial-temporal graph convolutional network (STGCN) that combines spatial factors for surrounding cities with historical incidence over a certain time period to predict the future occurrence of HFMD in Guangdong and Shandong between 2011 and 2019. The 2011–2018 data served as the training and verification set, while data from 2019 served as the prediction set. Six important parameters were selected and verified in this model and the deviation was displayed by the root mean square error and the mean absolute error.Results As the first application using a STGCN for disease forecasting, we succeeded in accurately predicting the incidence of HFMD over a 12-week period at the prefecture level, especially for cities of significant concern.Conclusions This model provides a novel approach for infectious disease prediction and may help health administrative departments implement effective control measures up to 3 months in advance, which may significantly reduce the morbidity associated with HFMD in the future.
Objective The hippocampus is thought to be a vulnerable target of microwave exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) acted as a fate regulator of adult rat hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). Furthermore, we investigated if 20E attenuated high power microwave (HMP) radiation-induced learning and memory deficits. Methods Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, radiation treated, and radiation+20E treated. Rats in the radiation and radiation+20E treatment groups were exposed to HPM radiation from a microwave emission system. The learning and memory abilities of the rats were assessed using the Morris water maze test. Primary adult rat hippocampal NSCs were isolated in vitro and cultured to evaluate their proliferation and differentiation. In addition, hematoxylin & eosin staining, western blotting, and immunofluorescence were used to detect changes in the rat brain and the proliferation and differentiation of the adult rat hippocampal NSCs after HPM radiation exposure. Results The results showed that 20E induced neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal NSCs from HPM radiation-exposed rats via the Wnt3a/β-catenin signaling pathway in vitro. Furthermore, 20E facilitated neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the rat brain following HPM radiation exposure. Administration of 20E attenuated learning and memory deficits in HPM radiation-exposed rats and frizzled-related protein (FRZB) reduced the 20E-induced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, while FRZB treatment also reversed 20E-induced neuronal differentiation of NSCs in vitro. Conclusion These results suggested that 20E was a fate regulator of adult rat hippocampal NSCs, where it played a role in attenuating HPM radiation-induced learning and memory deficits.
Objective To establish an ultra-sensitive, ultra-fast, visible detection method for Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP).Methods We established a new method for detecting the tdh and trh genes of VP using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 12a (CRISPR/Cas12a) combined with recombinase polymerase amplification and visual detection (CRISPR/Cas12a-VD). Results CRISPR/Cas12a-VD accurately detected target DNA at concentrations as low as 10-18 M (single molecule detection) within 30 min without cross-reactivity against other bacteria. When detecting pure cultures of VP, the consistency of results reached 100% compared with real-time PCR. The method accurately analysed pure cultures and spiked shrimp samples at concentrations as low as 102 CFU/g. Conclusion The novel CRISPR/Cas12a-VD method for detecting VP performed better than traditional detection methods, such as real-time PCR, and has great potential for preventing the spread of pathogens.
Objective We investigated changes in the intestinal flora of children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP). Methods Between September 2019 and November 2019, stool samples from 14 children with MPP from The Fourth Hospital of Baotou city, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, were collected and divided into general treatment (AF) and probiotic (AFY) groups, according to the treatment of “combined Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Bacillus cereus tablets live”. High-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing was used to identify intestinal flora. Results Intestinal flora abundance and diversity in children with MPP were decreased. Both Shannon and Simpson indices were lower in the AF group when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). When compared with healthy controls, the proportion of Enterorhabdus was lower in the AF group, while the proportion of Lachnoclostridium was higher (P < 0.05). The proportion of Bifidobacteria and Akkermansia was lower in the AFY group but Enterococcus, Lachnoclostridium, Roseburia, and Erysipelatoclostridium proportions were higher. The proportion of Escherichia coli–Shigella in the AFY group after treatment was decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusions The intestinal flora of children with MPP is disturbed, manifested as decreased abundance and diversity, and decreased Bifidobacteria. Our probiotic mixture partly improved intestinal flora disorders.