Objective Cigarette smoking is one of the established risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, however, its impact on lipids is not completely understood, especially in the Chinese population. Therefore, this study evaluated the impact of smoking status (non, former, and current smoking) on the distribution of lipoprotein subfractions in untreated patients with angina-like chest pain.Methods A total of 877 patients were consecutively enrolled and divided into nonsmoking (n = 518), former smoking (n = 103), and current smoking (n = 256) groups. Both low-and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C) subfractions were measured using the Quantimetrix Lipoprint System. The distributions of lipoprotein subfractions were evaluated among the groups.Results Compared with nonsmoking subjects, the current smoking group had significantly lower large/medium HDL-C (both P < 0.001) concentration and large HDL subfraction percentage but higher small HDL-C and medium LDL-C concentrations as well as medium LDL subfraction percentage. Importantly, former smoking subjects showed elevated levels of large HDL-C concentration, large HDL particle percentage, and mean LDL particle size and attenuation in small HDL/LDL percentages and small LDL-C concentration, but these levels did not reach the optimal status compared with those of the non-smoking group (data not shown).Conclusion Smoking has an adverse impact on the lipoprotein subfractions, presented as lower large HDL particles besides higher small HDL and medium LDL particles, whereas smoking cessation could reverse these change to a certain degree.
Objective To establish the distribution of 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk among Chinese adults.Methods We estimated the 10-year ASCVD risk by applying the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled cohort equations (PCEs) to the data obtained from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance that involved 61, 541 participants (representing 520, 158, 652 Chinese adults) aged 40-79 years. We also compared the ASCVD risk with the 10-year ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD) risk, which was calculated using the simplified scoring tables recommended by the Chinese Guidelines for Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases (Chinese model).Results Based on the PCEs, the average 10-year ASCVD risk among adults without self-reported stroke or myocardial infraction was 12.5%. Approximately 247 million (47.4%) and 107 million (20.6%) adults had ≥ 7.5% and > 20% 10-year ASCVD risks, respectively. The 10-year ASCVD risk > 20% was higher among men, less educated individuals, smokers, drinkers, and physically inactive individuals than among their counterparts. Overall, 29.0% of adults categorized using the Chinese model were overclassified with the PCEs.Conclusion Our results define the distribution of 10-year ASCVD risk among Chinese adults. The 10-year ASCVD risk predicted by the PCEs was higher than the ICVD risk predicted by the Chinese model.
Objective To assess the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of the Simplified Chinese-character version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Long form (IPAQ-L) in urban community-dwelling adults in Hanghzou, China.Methods A total of 158 eligible participants aged 25-59 years from 6 neighbourhoods in two central districts of Hangzhou completed the IPAQ-L questionnaire twice within a 7-day interval. Half of the subjects wore pedometers during the first 7 days. Test-retest reliability was examined by comparing the first (Day 1) and the second (Day 9) survey of IPAQ-L. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing IPAQ-L with pedometer data.Results Modest to good test-retest reliability was found with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.67 for total PA, 0.37 to 0.73 for specific dimensions, and 0.56 to 0.71 for different intensities of PA. Total PA measured by IPAQ-L was moderately correlated with exercise levels (partial r = 0.27, P = 0.020) and walking distance (partial r = 0.31, P = 0.007), which were measured by a pedometer, after adjusting for gender, age, educational attainment and employment status.Conclusion Our results indicate that the IPAQ-L is a reliable and validated measure for assessing physical activity levels in this population and possibly the adult population in other mainland Chinese cities.
Objective The effect of the silica nanoparticles (SNs) on lungs injury in rats was investigated to evaluate the toxicity and possible mechanisms for SNs.Methods Male Wistar rats were instilled intratracheally with 1 mL of saline containing 6.25, 12.5, and 25.0 mg of SNs or 25.0 mg of microscale SiO2 particles suspensions for 30 d, were then sacrificed. Histopathological and ultrastructural change in lungs, and chemical components in the urine excretions were investigated by light microscope, TEM and EDS. MDA, NO and hydroxyproline (Hyp) in lung homogenates were quantified by spectrophotometry. Contents of TNF-α, TGF-β1, IL-1β, and MMP-2 in lung tissue were determined by immunohistochemistry staining.Results There is massive excretion of Si substance in urine. The SNs lead pulmonary lesions of rise in lung/body coefficients, lung inflammation, damaged alveoli, granuloma nodules formation, and collagen metabolized perturbation, and lung tissue damage is milder than those of microscale SiO2 particles. The SNs also cause increase lipid peroxidation and high expression of cytokines.Conclusion The SNs result into pulmonary fibrosis by means of increase lipid peroxidation and high expression of cytokines. Milder effect of the SNs on pulmonary fibrosis comparing to microscale SiO2 particles is contributed to its elimination from urine due to their ultrafine particle size.
Objective This study aimed to investigate the genetic background of mitochondrial genes in young patients with Coronary heart disease (CHD) to provide a foundation for the early prevention of young patients with CHD.Methods 115 cases of young (≤ 45 years) CHD Chinese Han patients (case group), 100 cases of older ( > 45 years) Chinese Han CHD patients (experimental group) hospitalized and 100 cases of healthy people through physical examination (control group) at the General Hospital of PLA between January 2014 and December 2015 were selected. General information, clinical assessment, pedigree analysis, and mitochondrial full sequence scanning were performed.The pedigrees of one patient harbouring the C5263T mutation were recruited. Mitochondrial functional analysis including cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were performed on pedigrees with the C5263T mutation (mutation group) and without the mutation (non-mutation group).Results The differences in biochemical tests (P < 0.05) between the case group and experimental group were not significant. The C5263T single-nucleotide mutation of the mitochondrial ND2 gene was observed in 2 young CHD patients in the case group. The premature CHD of these 2 patients followed a pattern of maternal inheritance. The mutation group (Ⅰ1, Ⅱ2) had higher ROS levels (4750.82 ± 1045.55 vs. 3888.58 ± 487.60, P = 0.022) and lower MMP levels (P = 0.045) than the non-mutation group (Ⅱ1, Ⅲ1, Ⅲ2).Conclusion We speculated that the mitochondrial C5263T mutation might be associated with the occurrence CHD in Chinese Han young people.
Objective The aim of this study is to determine whether the SUMO4 M55V polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods A meta-analysis was performed to detect the potential association of the SUMO4 M55V polymorphism and susceptibility to T2DM under dominant, recessive, co-dominant (homogeneous and heterogeneous), and additive models.Results A total of eight articles including 10 case-control studies, with a total of 2932 cases and 2679 controls, were included in this meta-analysis. The significant association between the SUMO4 M55V polymorphism and susceptibility to T2DM was observed in the dominant model (GG + GA versus AA: OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.05-1.40, P= 0.009), recessive model (GG versus GA + AA: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.07-1.356, P= 0.010), homozygous model (GG versus AA: OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.06-1.56, P= 0.001), and additive model (G versus A: OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.08-1.29, P=0.001), and marginally significant in the heterozygous model (GA versus AA: OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.98-1.36, P= 0.080). In subgroup analyses, significant associations were observed in the Chinese population under four genetic models excluding the heterozygous model, whereas no statistically significant associations were observed in the Japanese population under each of the five genetic models.Conclusion The meta-analysis demonstrated that the G allele of the SUMO4 M55V polymorphism could be a susceptible risk locus to T2DM, mainly in the Chinese population, while the association in other ethnic population needs to be further validated in studies with relatively large samples.