2021 Vol. 34, No. 9

2021, 34(9): 0-0.
2021, 34(9): 1-2.
Original Article
Predicting Metabolic Syndrome Using Anthropometric Indices among Chinese Adolescents with Different Nutritional Status: A Multicenter Cross-sectional Study
LI Ya Mei, ZOU Zhi Yong, MA Ying Hua, LUO Jia You, JING Jin, ZHANG Xin, LUO Chun Yan, WANG Hong, ZHAO Hai Ping, PAN De Hong, LUO Mi Yang
2021, 34(9): 673-682. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.095
  Objective  To evaluate the predictive performance of anthropometric indices for metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese adolescents with different nutritional status.   Methods  We recruited 9,513 adolescents aged 10–18 years from seven provinces in China during September 2014. Anthropometric indices and blood pressure were measured at recruitment, and blood samples were collected for determining fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to assess the predictive performance of anthropometric indices, including body mass index (BMI) percentile, waist circumference percentile, waist-height ratio, and waist-hip ratio.   Results  Overall, the four anthropometric indices showed good accuracy for predicting MetS with areas under ROC curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.86 to 0.94; similar AUCs ranging from 0.73 to 0.99 were observed for participants with normal weight. The performance of all four indices was poor in overweight and obese participants, with AUCs ranging from 0.66 to 0.77 and from 0.60 to 0.67, respectively. Waist circumference showed relatively better performance in all the subgroup analyses.  Conclusions  We suggest using anthropometric indices with the cutoff values presented here for predicting MetS in the overall and normal-weight adolescent population, but not in the overweight and obese adolescent population where more specific screening tests are required.
Analysis of the Electrophoretic Profiles of Prion Protein in Carcinous and Pericarcinous Lysates of Six Different Types of Cancers
WEI Wei, WU Yue Zhang, XIAO Kang, XU Guo Hui, SONG Yun Tao, SHI Qi, DONG Xiao Ping
2021, 34(9): 683-692. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.096
  Objective  To find the different electrophoretic profiles of prion protein in carcinous and individual pericarcinous tissues in lysates of gastric, colon, liver, lung, thyroid, and laryngeal cancers.  Methods  Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot were used to test the amounts and electrophoretic patterns of total PrP and the tolerance of PK (protease K) digestion among six various cancer tissue types.  Results  A mass of PrP signals with a large molecular weight were identified in the homogenates of peripheral tissues. The amounts and electrophoretic patterns of total PrP did not differ significantly between carcinous and pericarcinous tissues. PrPs in all types of the tested cancer samples were PK sensitive but showed diversity in the tolerance of PK digestion among various tissue types.  Conclusions  The study revealed that the included electrophoretic patterns of carcinous and pericarcinous tissues were almost similar. Unlike PrP-specific immunohistochemical assay, evaluation of PrP electrophoretic patterns in the peripheral organs and tissues by Western blot does not reflect tumor malignancy.
2-Hexyl-4-Pentylenic Acid (HPTA) Stimulates the Radiotherapy-induced Abscopal Effect on Distal Tumor through Polarization of Tumor-associated Macrophages
DUAN Wen Hua, JIN Li Ya, CAI Zu Chao, LIM David, FENG Zhi Hui
2021, 34(9): 693-704. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.097
  Objective  The aim of this study was to explore the effects of 2-hexyl-4-pentylenic acid (HPTA) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) on distant unirradiated breast tumors.  Methods  Using a rat model of chemical carcinogen (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene,DMBA)-induced breast cancer, tumor volume was monitored and treatment response was evaluated by performing HE staining, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR, and western blot analyses.   Results  The results demonstrated that HPTA in combination with RT significantly delayed the growth of distant, unirradiated breast tumors. The mechanism of action included tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltration into distant tumor tissues, M1 polarization, and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by IFN-γ.  Conclusion  The results suggest that the combination of HPTA with RT has an abscopal effect on distant tumors via M1-polarized TAMs, and HPTA may be considered as a new therapeutic for amplifying the efficacy of local RT for non-targeted breast tumors. The graphical abstract was available in the web of www.besjournal.com.
NRN1 and CAT Gene Polymorphisms, Complex Noise, and Lifestyles interactively Affect the Risk of Noise-induced Hearing Loss
LIU Shuang Yan, SONG Wei Qin, XIN Jia Rui, LI Zheng, LEI Song, CHEN Ying Qi, ZHAO Tian Yu, WANG Hai Yan, XU Liang Wen, ZHANG Mei Bian, HONG Yu, YANG Lei
2021, 34(9): 705-718. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.098
  Objective  The effects of interactions between genetic and environmental factors on the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) are still unclear. This study aimed to assess interactions among gene polymorphisms, noise metrics, and lifestyles on the risk of NIHL.  Methods  A case-control study was conducted using 307 patients with NIHL and 307 matched healthy individuals from five manufacturing industries. General demographic data, lifestyle details, and noise exposure levels were recorded. The Kompetitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (KASP) was used to analyze the genotypes of 18 SNPs.  Results  GMDR model demonstrated a relevant interaction between NRN1 rs3805789 and CAT rs7943316 (P = 0.0107). Subjects with T allele of rs3805789 or T allele of rs7943316 had higher risks of NIHL than those with the SNP pair of rs3805789-CC and rs7943316-AA (P < 0.05). There was an interaction among rs3805789, rs7943316, and kurtosis (P = 0.0010). Subjects exposed to complex noise and carrying both rs3805789-CT and rs7943316-TT or rs3805789-CT/TT and rs7943316-AA had higher risks of NIHL than those exposed to steady noise and carrying both rs3805789-CC and rs7943316-AA (P < 0.05). The best six‐locus model involving NRN1 rs3805789, CAT rs7943316, smoking, video volume, physical exercise, and working pressure for the risk of NIHL was found to be the interaction (P = 0.0010). An interaction was also found among smoking, video volume, physical exercise, working pressure, and kurtosis (P = 0.0107).  Conclusion  Concurrence of NRN1 and CAT constitutes a genetic risk factor for NIHL. Complex noise exposure significantly increases the risk of NIHL in subjects with a high genetic risk score. Interactions between genes and lifestyles as well as noise metrics and lifestyles affect the risk of NIHL.
Letter to the Editor
TREM2: A Novel Potential Biomarker of Alzheimer’s Disease
ZHANG Xiao Min, LIU Jing, CAO Min, YANG Ting Ting, WANG Ya Qi, HOU Yu Li, SONG Qiao, CUI Yu Ting, WANG Pei Chang
2021, 34(9): 719-724. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.099
Full-Length Genome Sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 Directly from Clinical and Environmental Samples Based on the Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Method
NIU Pei Hua, ZHAO Xiang, LU Rou Jian, ZHAO Li, HUANG Bao Ying, YE Fei, WANG Da Yan, TAN Wen Jie
2021, 34(9): 725-728. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.100
A Longitudinal Survey for Genome-based Identification of SARS-CoV-2 in Sewage Water in Selected Lockdown Areas of Lahore City, Pakistan: A Potential Approach for Future Smart Lockdown Strategy
Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Nawaz, Muhammad Z. Shabbir, Muhammad A. Ali, Imran Altaf, Sohail Raza, Muhammad A. B. Shabbir, Muhammad A. Ashraf, Syed Z. Aziz, Sohail Q. Cheema, Muhammad B. Shah, Saira Rafique, Sohail Hassan, Nageen Sardar, Adnan Mehmood, Muhammad W. Aziz, Sehar Fazal, Nadir Hussain, Muhammad T. Khan, Muhammad M. Atique, Ali Asif, Muhammad Anwar, Nabeel A. Awan, Muhammad U. Younis, Muhammad A. Bhattee, Zarfishan Tahir, Nadia Mukhtar, Huda Sarwar, Maaz S. Rana, Omair Farooq
2021, 34(9): 729-733. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.101
Testing-Related and Geo-Demographic Indicators Strongly Predict COVID-19 Deaths in the United States during March of 2020
James B. Hittner, Folorunso O. Fasina, Almira L. Hoogesteijn, Renata Piccinini, Dawid Maciorowski, Prakasha Kempaiah, Stephen D. Smith, Ariel L. Rivas
2021, 34(9): 734-738. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.102
Analyses of the Duration and Dynamics of the COVID-19 Epidemic in 11 Severely Affected Countries
CHEN Cao, SHI Qi, DONG Xiao Ping
2021, 34(9): 739-742. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.066
Seroprevalence of IgM and IgG Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in Asymptomatic People in Wuhan: Data from a General Hospital Near South China Seafood Wholesale Market during March to April in 2020
LING Rui Jie, YU Yi Han, HE Jia Yu, ZHANG Ji Xian, XU Sha, SUN Ren Rong, ZHU Wang Cai, CHEN Ming Feng, LI Tao, JI Hong Long, WANG Huan Qiang
2021, 34(9): 743-749. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.103
The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic people in Wuhan. This was a cross-sectional study, which enrolled 18,712 asymptomatic participants from 154 work units in Wuhan. Pearson Chi-square test, t-test, and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare the standardized seroprevalence of IgG and IgM for age and gender between different groups. The results indicated the standardized seroprevalence of IgG and IgM showed a downward trend and was significantly higher among females than males. Besides, different geographic areas and workplaces had different seroprevalence of IgG among asymptomatic people, and the number of abnormalities in CT imaging were higher in IgG antibody-positive cases than IgG-negative cases. We hope these findings can provide references for herd immunity investigation and provide basis for vaccine development.
Association between 25 Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and the Risk of COVID-19: A Mendelian Randomization Study
LIU Di, TIAN Qiu Yue, ZHANG Jie, HOU Hai Feng, LI Yuan, WANG Wei, MENG Qun, WANG You Xin
2021, 34(9): 750-754. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.104
Qingfei Paidu Decoction for COVID-19: A Bibliometric Analysis
LIU Si Hong, MA Yan, SHI Nan Nan, TONG Lin, ZHANG Lei, CHEN Ren Bo, FAN Yi Pin, JI Xin Yu, GE You Wen, ZHANG Hua Min, WANG Yan Ping, WANG Yong Yan
2021, 34(9): 755-760. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.105