2021 Vol. 34, No. 8

2021, 34(8): 1-1.
2021, 34(8): 1-2.
Original Article
Recent Trends in Sedentary Behaviors among Chinese Children According to Demographic and Social Characteristics
YANG Xi, LEUNG Wai Yi, CHEN Yuan Sheng, OUYANG Yi Fei, ZHAO Wen Hua
2021, 34(8): 593-605. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.083
  Objective  This study aims to explore trends in sedentary behavior among Chinese children aged 6–17 years per demographic and social characteristics.  Methods  A total of 4,341 children aged 6–17 years who participated in the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 2004 to 2015 were included. Repeated measures from mixed-effects models were applied to test trends in sedentary behaviors, which were further analyzed after applying stratification according to gender, age, urbanization level, residential area, and region. Random-effects ordinal regression models were used to examine the trends at sedentary levels.  Results  From 2004 to 2015, sedentary time among children aged 6–17 years increased from 23.9 ± 0.6 h/week to 25.7 ± 0.6 h/week (P < 0.001). Increases of 3.1 h/week (P < 0.001), 2.3 h/week (P = 0.012), and 1.3 h/week (P = 0.042) were found among the low-, medium-, and high-urbanization groups respectively and increased by 2.0 h/week (P < 0.001) and 1.3 h/week (P = 0.002) among rural and urban children, respectively. The proportion of Chinese children with average daily screen time below 2 hours declined by 10.2% (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.42–0.63, P < 0.001); a decreasing trend was observed in both boys and girls.  Conclusions  Sedentary time among Chinese children aged 6–17 years showed an upward trend from 2004 to 2015, especially among children residing in rural areas and regions with low urbanization levels.
Cumulative Risk Assessment of Exposure to Heavy Metals through Aquatic Products in China
WANG Hui, MAO Wei Feng, JIANG Ding Guo, LIU Si Jie, ZHANG Lei
2021, 34(8): 606-615. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.084
  Objective  This study aimed to assess the risk of cumulative exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg, and iAs through aquatic products consumed by Chinese people.  Methods  Heavy metal concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring program during 2013–2017. Consumption data were derived from the China National Food Consumption Survey in 2014 and the relative potency factor (RPF) method was used to estimate cumulative exposure for neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.  Results  The results demonstrated that the cumulative exposure based on neurotoxicity was below the lower confidence limit on benchmark doses of lead (BMDL01) for nephrotoxicity and the cumulative exposures were all lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of Cd. However, the margin of exposure values (MOEs) of the cumulative exposures for neurotoxicity in the 2–6 year-old group was close to 1 and the cumulative exposure level for nephrotoxicity accounted for 90.21 % of the PTMI.  Conclusion  The cumulative exposures of the 2–6 year-old group to the four heavy metals did not reach (but came close to) the corresponding safety threshold for both neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Given that there are still other food sources of these four heavy metals, it is necessary to more closely study their cumulative health effects.
Evaluation of Multidrug Resistant Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Detecting the Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
LIU Chun Fa, SONG Yi Meng, HE Ping, LIU Dong Xin, HE Wen Cong, LI Yan Ming, ZHAO Yan Lin
2021, 34(8): 616-622. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.085
  Objective  To evaluate multidrug resistant loop-mediated isothermal amplification (MDR-LAMP) assay for the early diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and to compare the mutation patterns associated with the rpoB, katG, and inhA genes at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.  Methods  MDR-LAMP assay was evaluated using 100 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) isolates obtained from the National Reference Laboratory for Tuberculosis in China. Phenotypic resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and whole-genome sequencing served as reference standards.  Results  The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of MDR-LAMP were 85.5%, 93.6%, 96.7%, and 74.4% for the detection of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, respectively, and 80.5%, 92.3%, 98.6%, and 41.4% for the detection of Mtb cultured from smear-positive sputum samples, respectively. When DNA sequencing was used as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of MDR-LAMP were 93.1%, 92.3%, 97.2%, and 82.8% for the detection of katG and inhA gene mutations, respectively, and 89.1%, 88.9%, 93.4%, and 81.1% for the detection of rpoB gene mutation, respectively.  Conclusion  MDR-LAMP is a rapid and accessible assay for the laboratory identification of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of Mtb isolates.
Serum Ferritin and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Cross-sectional Studies
ZHANG Wei Chun Bai, XING Yang, SHAO Bing
2021, 34(8): 623-631. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.086
  Objective  This study aims to assess the dose-response relationship between serum ferritin (SF) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the two sexes.  Methods  We searched for articles on PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Web of Science databases that were published from 1950 to 2020. The summary odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of the association between SF and MetS were estimated using a random-effects model through a meta-analysis. Based on the methods described by Greenland and Longnecker, we explored the dose-response relationship between the two sexes.  Results  This study included 14 studies and 74,710 samples. The results of the classical meta-analysis showed that SF was positively associated with MetS (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.59–1.98). Regarding the components of MetS (8 studies included), the results showed that SF was positively associated with abdominal obesity (OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.24–1.62), elevated fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.50–2.25), elevated blood pressure (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08–1.26), elevated triglycerides (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.72–2.54), and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19–1.49). In the linear dose-response meta-analysis, the ORs of males, females, and postmenopausal females were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.13–1.16), 1.32 (95% CI: 1.26–1.39), and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.22–1.47), respectively.  Conclusions  Our study shows that SF is significantly and positively associated with MetS, and the risk in the male population is higher than that in the female population. This finding also supports the recommendation of using SF as an early warning marker of MetS.
Letter to the Editor
Serum Total Bilirubin and Risk of Progressing Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study
ZHANG Jie, ZHANG Yin Fei, HU Chun Yan, ZHANG Yi, QI Hong Yan, LIN Lin, XU Yu, XU Min, LU Jie Li, BI Yu Fang, WANG Wei Qing, NING Guang, CHEN Yu Hong
2021, 34(8): 632-636. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.087
Polysaccharides from the Green Alga Ulva lactuca Improve Antioxidant Balance and Bone Mineral Density in Diabetic Rats
Sahla Belhadj, Manel Gargouri, Giulia Guerriero, Olfa Hentati
2021, 34(8): 637-640. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.088
A Risk Prediction Model for Ischemic Stroke in Southern Chinese Population: Impact of Multiple Genetic Variants and Clinical/Lifestyle Factors
YE Cheng Yin, LI Jin Mei, WU Jing Hua, LI Zheng, XIAO Juan, YIN Xiao Yu, WANG Da Hui, XU Guo Zhang, YANG Lei
2021, 34(8): 641-645. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.089
Effects of Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis Initiation and Discontinuation on Mortality and Attrition Rates among HIV Patients Who Initiate ART in Southwest China: An Observational Cohort Study
ZHU Jin Hui, RUAN Yu Hua, PAN Stephen, YANG Wen Min, ZHU Qiu Ying, CHEN Huan Huan, SHEN Zhi Yong, LAN Guang Hua, XING Hui, SHAO Yi Ming, LI Li Ming
2021, 34(8): 646-649. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.090
Rapid Internal Control Reference Recombinase-Aided Amplification Assays for EBV and CMV Detection
GAO Yuan, TIE Yan Qing, ZHAO Lin Qing, TAN He, DING Nan, DING Ya Xin, GUO Qi, ZHANG Rui Qing, WANG Jin Rong, CHEN Zi Wei, FAN Guo Hao, SHEN Xin Xin, FENG Zhi Shan, MA Xue Jun
2021, 34(8): 650-655. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.091
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), two of the most prevalent human herpesviruses, cause a wide spectrum of diseases and symptoms and are associated with serious health problem. In this study, we developed an internal control reference recombinase-aided amplification (ICR-RAA) assay for the rapid detection of EBV and CMV within 30 min. The assay had a sensitivity of 5 and 1 copies/test for EBV and CMV, respectively, with no cross reaction with other pathogens. In comparison with those of the commercial quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the sensitivity of the EBV and CMV ICR-RAAs using extracted DNA was 93.33% and 84.84%, respectively; the specificity was 98.75% and 100.00%, respectively; and the Kappa values were 0.930 and 0.892 (P < 0.05), respectively. In comparison with those of qPCR, the sensitivity of the EBV and CMV ICR-RAAs using the DNA by thermal lysis was 72.22% and 80.00%, respectively; the specificity was 100.00%; and the Kappa values were 0.764 and 0.878 (P < 0. 05), respectively. Thus, rapid and specific detection of EBV and CMV is possible using ICR-RAA assays.
Identification of Boseongicola sediminum sp. nov., a Novel Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209)-tolerant Strain Isolated from Coastal Sediment in Xiamen, China
TANG Chen, FAN Chun, GUO Dong Bei, MA Xiu Juan, CAI Qing Tao, CHEN Xiao Xuan, ZHANG Min, LI Jia Yao, AN Qiu Ying, ZHAO Ran
2021, 34(8): 656-661. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.092
Linear and Interactive Effects of Air Pollution and Diurnal Temperature Range on COPD Mortality in Weifang, China: A Time Series Analysis
DIAO Li Jie, GAO Zhi Hao, JIANG Yi Chen, CHEN Zuo Sen, LI Ning, MENG Xian Feng, XU Xin, LI Jing
2021, 34(8): 662-666. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.093
Effectiveness of Using Mean Corpuscular Volume and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin for Beta-thalassemia Carrier Screening in the Guangdong Population of China
GU Heng, WANG Yong Xia, DU Meng Xuan, XU Shan Shan, ZHOU Bing Yi, LI Ming Zhen
2021, 34(8): 667-671. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.094
Beta (β)-thalassemia is one of the most common hemoglobinopathies worldwide, creating major public health problems and social burdens in many regions. Screening for β-thalassemia carriers is crucial for controlling this condition. To investigate the effectiveness of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) for screening β-thalassemia, retrospective data were analyzed for 6,779 β‐thalassemia carriers subjected to genetic testing following thalassemia screening in Guangdong province between January 2018 and December 2019. Prevalent mutations observed included CD41/42 (-TTCT) (38.43%), IVS-II-654 (C > T) (25.71%), -28 (A > G) (15.78%), CD17 (AAG > TAG) (10.03%), and βE (GAG > AAG) (3.13%). In the β0, β+, and HbE groups, MCV values were 63.8 ± 4.2 fL, 67.0 ± 5.5 fL, and 75.8 ± 5.6 fL, while MCH values were 20.1 ± 1.4 pg, 21.2 ± 1.9 pg, and 24.8 ± 2.0 pg, respectively. Among β-thalassemia carriers, 85 (1.25%) and 28 (0.41%) individuals had MCV ≥ 80 fL and MCH ≥ 27 pg, respectively. Using a combination of MCV and MCH reduced the number of false negative screenings to 15 (0.22%). Therefore, evaluating both MCV and MCH is strongly recommended for screening β‐thalassemia carriers.