Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8:0) on lipid metabolism and inflammation, and examine the mechanisms underlying these effects in mice and cells. Methods Fifty-six 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly allocated to four groups fed a high-fat diet (HFD) without or with 2% C8:0, palmitic acid (C16:0) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). RAW246.7 cells were randomly divided into five groups: normal, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS+C8:0, LPS+EPA and LPS+cAMP. The serum lipid profiles, inflammatory biomolecules, and ABCA1 and JAK2/STAT3 mRNA and protein expression were measured. Results C8:0 decreased TC and LDL-C, and increased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio after injection of LPS. Without LPS, it decreased TC in mice (P < 0.05). Moreover, C8:0 decreased the inflammatory response after LPS treatment in both mice and cells (P < 0.05). Mechanistic investigations in C57BL/6J mouse aortas after injection of LPS indicated that C8:0 resulted in higher ABCA1 and JAK2/STAT3 expression than that with HFD, C16:0 and EPA, and resulted in lower TNF-α, NF-κB mRNA expression than that with HFD (P < 0.05). In RAW 264.7 cells, C8:0 resulted in lower expression of pNF-κBP65 than that in the LPS group, and higher protein expression of ABCA1, p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 than that in the LPS and LPS+cAMP groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Our studies demonstrated that C8:0 may play an important role in lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response, and the mechanism may be associated with ABCA1 and the p-JAK2/p-STAT3 signaling pathway.
Objective We wanted to investigate the radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) network in patients with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD). Methods We compared RPC densities in the disk and different peripapillary regions, obtained using optical coherence tomography angiography in 22 patients with BCD (37 eyes) and 22 healthy subjects (37 eyes). The BCD group was then divided into Stage 2 and Stage 3 subgroups based on Yuzawa staging, comparing the RPC densities of the two. Results The disk area RPC density was 38.8% ± 6.3% in the BCD group and 49.2% ± 6.1% in the control group (P < 0.001), and peripapillary region RPC density was significantly lower in the BCD group than in the control group (49.1% ± 4.7% and 54.1% ± 3.0%, respectively, P < 0.001). There were no significant RPC density differences between the tempo quadrant and inside disk of Stages 2 and 3 subgroups; the other areas showed a significantly lower RPC density in Stage 3 than in Stage 2 BCD. Conclusion The BCD group RPC density was significantly lower than the control group. The reduction of RPC density in the tempo quadrant occurred mainly in the Stage 1 BCD. In contrast, the reduction of RPC density in superior, inferior, and nasal quadrants occurred mainly in Stage 2.
Objective To explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) with circulating lipids considering gender differences.Methods Of the Han Chinese adults recruited from a health examination center for inclusion in the study, the circulating lipids, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), and other parameters were measured. The VDR SNPs of Cdx2 (rs11568820), Fok1 (rs2228570), Apa1 (rs7975232), and Taq1 (rs731236) were genotyped with a qPCR test using blood DNA samples, and their associations with lipids were analyzed using logistic regression.Results In the female participants (n = 236 with dyslipidemia and 888 without dyslipidemia), multiple genotype models of Fok1 indicated a positive correlation of B (not A) alleles with LDLC level (P < 0.05). In the male participants (n = 299 with dyslipidemia and 564 without dyslipidemia), the recessive model of Cdx2 and the additive and recessive models of Fok1 differed (P < 0.05) between the HDLC-classified subgroups, respectively, and Fok1 BB and Cdx2 TT presented interactions with 25OHD in the negative associations with HDLC (P < 0.05).Conclusion In the Chinese Han adults included in the study, the Fok1 B-allele of VDR was associated with higher LDLC in females, and the Fok1 B-allele and the Cdx2 T-allele of VDR were associated with lower HDLC in males. The interaction of VD and Fok1 BB or Cdx2 TT in males synergistically decreased HDLC levels.
Objective Traditional epidemiological studies have shown that C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, whether this association is causal remains unclear. Therefore, Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to explore the causal relationship of CRP with cardiovascular outcomes including ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation, arrhythmia and congestive heart failure. Methods We performed two-sample MR by using summary-level data obtained from Japanese Encyclopedia of Genetic association by Riken (JENGER), and we selected four single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRP level as instrumental variables. MR estimates were calculated with the inverse-variance weighted (IVW), penalized weighted median and weighted median. MR-Egger regression was used to explore pleiotropy. Results No significant causal association of genetically determined CRP level with ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation or arrhythmia was found with all four MR methods (all Ps > 0.05). The IVW method indicated suggestive evidence of a causal association between CRP and congestive heart failure (OR: 1.337, 95% CI: 1.005–1.780, P = 0.046), whereas the other three methods did not. No clear pleiotropy or heterogeneity were observed. Conclusions Suggestive evidence was found only in analysis of congestive heart failure; therefore, further studies are necessary. Furthermore, no causal association was found between CRP and the other three cardiovascular outcomes.
Objective To establish a sensitive, simple and rapid detection method for African swine fever virus (ASFV) B646L gene.Methods A recombinase-aided amplification-lateral flow dipstick (RAA-LFD) assay was developed in this study. Recombinase-aided amplification (RAA) is used to amplify template DNA, and lateral flow dipstick (LFD) is used to interpret the results after the amplification is completed. The lower limits of detection and specificity of the RAA assay were verified using recombinant plasmid and pathogenic nucleic acid. In addition, 30 clinical samples were tested to evaluate the performance of the RAA assay.Results The RAA-LFD assay was completed within 15 min at 37 °C, including 10 min for nucleic acid amplification and 5 minutes for LFD reading results. The detection limit of this assay was found to be 200 copies per reaction. And there was no cross-reactivity with other swine viruses.Conclusion A highly sensitive, specific, and simple RAA-LFD method was developed for the rapid detection of the ASFV.