Objective The association between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with subclinical macrovascular and microvascular diseases has been less investigated. We sought to examine the association between NLR and new-onset subclinical macrovascular and microvascular abnormalities in the Chinese population. Methods From a community cohort, we included 6,430 adults aged ≥ 40 years without subclinical macrovascular and microvascular diseases at baseline. We measured subclinical macrovascular and microvascular abnormalities separately using the ankle-brachial index (ABI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and albuminuria. Results During a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, 110 participants developed incident abnormal ABI, 746 participants developed incident elevated baPWV, and 503 participants developed incident albuminuria. Poisson regression analysis indicated that NLR was significantly associated with an increased risk of new-onset abnormal ABI, elevated baPWV, and albuminuria. Compared to overweight/obese participants, we found a much stronger association between NLR and subclinical vascular abnormalities in participants with normal weight. Furthermore, we found an interaction between the NLR and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of new-onset abnormal ABI (P for interaction: 0.01). Conclusion NLR was associated with subclinical macrovascular and microvascular diseases in the Chinese population. Furthermore, in participants with normal weight, the association between NLR and subclinical vascular abnormalities was much stronger.
Objective This study aims to investigate the association of metabolic phenotypes that are jointly determined by body mass index (BMI) or fat mass percentage and metabolic health status with the ten-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Chinese adults. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study. BMI and body fat mass percentage (FMP) combined with the metabolic status were used to define metabolic phenotypes. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to examine the effects of metabolic phenotypes on CVD risk. Results A total of 13,239 adults aged 34–75 years were included in this study. Compared with the metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO) phenotype, the metabolically unhealthy non-obese (MUNO) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) phenotypes defined by BMI showed a higher CVD risk [odds ratio, OR (95% confidence interval, CI): 2.34 (1.89–2.89), 3.45 (2.50–4.75), respectively], after adjusting for the covariates. The MUNO and MUO phenotypes defined by FMP showed a higher CVD risk [OR (95% CI): 2.31 (1.85–2.88), 2.63 (1.98–3.48), respectively] than the MHNO phenotype. The metabolically healthy obese phenotype, regardless of being defined by BMI or FMP, showed no CVD risk compared with the MHNO phenotype. Conclusion General obesity without central obesity does not increase CVD risk in metabolically healthy individuals. FMP might be a more meaningful factor for the evaluation of the association of obesity with CVD risk. Obesity and metabolic status have a synergistic effect on CVD risk.
Objective This study aimed to examine the associations of daytime napping with incident risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hypertension (HTN). Methods Data for napping and CVD outcomes in 25 provinces were collected from baseline (2010) and three waves of follow-up (2012–2017) investigations of the China Family Panel Studies. Cox frailty models with random intercepts for the surveyed provinces were used to assess the longitudinal effects of daytime napping on CVD and HTN. Results Compared with non-nappers, 30+ min nappers had higher risks of CVD and HTN, while no significant associations were observed among < 30 min nappers. Incident risks among 30- to < 60-min nappers increased by 22% [hazard ratio (HR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.39] for CVD and 21% (1.21, 1.04–1.41) for HTN, respectively, with corresponding HRs of CVD and HTN of 1.27 (1.09–1.47) and 1.38 (1.16–1.65) among ≥ 60 min nappers. Nap-associated CVD risks varied by subgroups, with stronger associations in participants with lower body mass index (< 24 kg/m2), physically inactive persons, smokers, and participants with longer nighttime sleep (≥ 7 h/night). Significant effects of daytime napping were observed on rural and northern residents only, highlighting great regional variations in CVD risks associated with napping habits. Conclusions This cohort study revealed strong evidence that long daytime napping (≥ 30 min) is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events.
Objective To determine if ARHGEF10 has a haploinsufficient effect and provide evidence to evaluate the severity, if any, during prenatal consultation.Methods Zebrafish was used as a model for generating mutant. The pattern of arhgef10 expression in the early stages of zebrafish development was observed using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). CRISPR/Cas9 was applied to generate a zebrafish model with a single-copy or homozygous arhgef10 deletion. Activity and light/dark tests were performed in arhgef10−/−, arhgef10+/−, and wild-type zebrafish larvae. ARHGEF10 was knocked down using small interferon RNA (siRNA) in the SH-SY5Y cell line, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined using the CCK-8 assay and Annexin V/PI staining, respectively.Results WISH showed that during zebrafish embryonic development arhgef10 was expressed in the midbrain and hindbrain at 36–72 h post-fertilization (hpf) and in the hemopoietic system at 36–48 hpf. The zebrafish larvae with single-copy and homozygous arhgef10 deletions had lower exercise capacity and poorer responses to environmental changes compared to wild-type zebrafish larvae. Moreover, arhgef10−/− zebrafish had more severe symptoms than arhgef10+/- zebrafish. Knockdown of ARHGEF10 in human neuroblastoma cells led to decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis.Conclusion Based on our findings, ARHGEF10 appeared to have a haploinsufficiency effect.
Objective This study aimed to assess the associations between maternal drug use, cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genetic polymorphisms, and their interactions with the risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) in offspring. Methods A case-control study involving 569 mothers of CHD cases and 652 controls was conducted from November 2017 to January 2020. Results After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the results show that mothers who used ovulatory drugs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08–4.16), antidepressants (aOR = 2.56; 95% CI: 1.36–4.82), antiabortifacients (aOR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.00–2.40), or traditional Chinese drugs (aOR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.26–3.09) during pregnancy were at a significantly higher risk of CHDs in offspring. Maternal CYP450 genetic polymorphisms at rs1065852 (A/T vs. A/A: OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10–2.14; T/T vs. A/A: OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.07–2.31) and rs16947 (G/G vs. C/C: OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.82–6.39) were also significantly associated with the risk of CHDs in offspring. Additionally, significant interactions were observed between the CYP450 genetic variants and drug use on the development of CHDs. Conclusions In those of Chinese descent, ovulatory drugs, antidepressants, antiabortifacients, and traditional Chinese medicines may be associated with the risk of CHDs in offspring. Maternal CYP450 genes may regulate the effects of maternal drug exposure on fetal heart development.