Objective This study is to obtain precise data on iron physiological requirements in Chinese children using single stable isotope tracer technique. Methods Thirty boys (10.6 ± 0.2 years) and 27 girls (10.4 ± 0.2 years) were received oral 6 mg 57Fe each day for 5 consecutive days. Venous blood samples were subsequently drawn to examine the change of total iron concentration and 57Fe abundance at day 0, 14, 28, 60, 90, 180, 360, 450, 540, 630, 720. The iron physiological requirement was calculated by iron loss combined with iron circulation rate once 57Fe abundance stabilized in human body. Results The iron physiological requirement was significantly lower in boys than those values in girls (16.88 ± 7.12 vs. 18.40 ± 8.81 μg/kg per day, P < 0.05). Correspondingly, the values were calculated as 722.46 ± 8.43 μg/day for boys and 708.40 ± 7.55 μg/day for girls, respectively. Considering nearly 10% iron absorption rate, the estimated average iron physiological requirement was 6.0 mg/day in boys and 6.2 mg/day in girls. Conclusion This study indicate that iron physiological requirement could require more daily iron intake in girls as compare with the values in boys having the same body weight. These findings would be facilitate to the new revised dietary reference intakes.
Objective This study optimizes three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions of HepG2 using response surface methodology (RSM) based on the VitroGel system to facilitate the cell model in vitro for liver tissues. Method HepG2 cell was 3D cultured on the VitroGel system. Cell viability was detected using Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay of HepG2 lived cell numbers. The proliferation of HepG2 cell and clustering performance was measured via fluorescence staining test. Albumin concentration in the culture medium supernatant as an index of HepG2 cell biological function was measured with ELISA kit. Independent factor tests were conducted with three key factors: inoculated cell concentration, cultured time, and dilution degree of the hydrogel. The preliminary results of independent factor tests were used to determine the levels of factors for RSM. Result The selected optimal culture conditions are as follows: concentration of inoculated cells was 4.44 × 105/mL, culture time was 4.86 days, and hydrogel dilution degree was 1:2.23. The result shows that under optimal conditions, the predicted optical density (OD) value of cell viability was 3.10 and measured 2.978 with a relative error of 3.94%. Conclusion This study serves as a reference for the 3D HepG2 culture and constructs liver tissues in vitro. Additionally, it provides the foundation for repeated dose high-throughput toxicity studies and other scientific research work.
Objective To present an approach to phenotyping ACEs and explore the association between ACEs and adolescent health risky behaviors based on the social context of China. Methods Totally, 5,726 adolescents aged 12–18 years were investigated about their ACEs in the family, peer, school, and personal domains and the occurrence of six types of risky health behaviors (i.e., smoking, drinking, sexual intercourse, self-harm, and suicidal ideation and attempts). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to explore the ACE patterns. Results Six latent classes of ACEs were identified, including low adversity, school adversity, school adversity and peer victimization, peer victimization, maltreatment and peer victimization, and high adversity, and associated with risky health behaviors in adolescents. Being physically punished by a teacher, experiencing sexual abuse, and experiencing family trauma most strongly differentiated from the six ACE classes and were correlated with an increased risk for risky adolescent health behaviors. Conclusion This study supports a positive association between ACEs and risky adolescent health behaviors. Peer victimization, school adversity and associated contexts need to be considered in future ACE studies.
Objective Prenatal phthalate exposure has been associated with placental inflammatory factors and infant allergic rhinitis (AR). However, the results are inconclusive. We designed a population-based cohort study to examine the effects of placental inflammatory biomarkers on the sex-dependent associations between maternal phthalate exposure and infant AR. Methods A total of 2,348 pregnant women from Ma’anshan, Anhui Province, China, who were screened before antenatal visits and met the inclusion criteria, were included in the present study. We assessed AR in their offspring aged 36 months with a questionnaire. Quantitative PCR was performed to measure placental inflammatory factor mRNAs. The independent samples t-test and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine the associations between infant AR and maternal phthalates. Results Childhood AR may be related to education and family monthly income (P = 0.01). The phthalate metabolites, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyl) phthalate (MEHHP), in pregnant women were associated with a significantly increased risk for infant AR in males [P < 0.05; odds ratio (OR): 1.285; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.037−1.591, and OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 1.008−1.507, respectively], but not females. Additionally, irritably-increased expression levels of HO-1 and IL-4 were associated with AR in male infants (OR: 1.175; 95% CI: 1.038−1.329 and OR: 1.181; 95% CI: 1.056−1.322, respectively). The association between maternal urinary MEHHP and placental HO-1 was marginally significant according to mediation analysis. Conclusion The associations of maternal MEHHP and MEOHP levels with fetal AR in males were significant. Placental HO-1 was a fractional mediator in the associations between MEHHP and AR. Thus, the placenta should be further investigated as a potential mediator of maternal exposure-induced disease risk in children.
Objective To describe the global profiles of acetylated proteins in the brains of scrapie agents 139A- and ME7-infected mice collected at mid-early, mid-late, and terminal stages.Methods The acetylated proteins from the cortex regions of scrapie agent (139A- and ME7)-infected mice collected at mid-early (80 days postinfection, dpi), mid-late (120 dpi), and terminal (180 dpi) stages were extracted, and the global profiles of brain acetylated proteins were assayed with proteomic mass spectrometry. The proteins in the infected mice showing 1.5-fold higher or lower levels than that of age-matched normal controls were considered as differentially expressed acetylated peptides (DEAPs).Results A total of 118, 42, and 51 DEAPs were found in the brains of 139A-80, 139A-120, and 139A-180 dpi mice, respectively. Meanwhile, 390, 227, and 75 DEAPs were detected in the brains of ME7-80, ME7-120, and ME7-180 dpi mice, respectively. The overwhelming majority of DEAPs in the mid-early stage were down-regulated, and more portions of DEAPs in the mid-late and late stages were up-regulated. Approximately 22.1% (328/1,485) of acetylated peptides mapped to 74 different proteins were mitochondrial associated. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis identified 39 (80 dpi), 13 (120 dpi), and 10 (180 dpi) significantly changed pathways in 139A-infected mice. Meanwhile, 55, 25, and 18 significantly changed pathways were observed in the 80, 120, and 180 dpi samples of 139A- and ME7-infected mice (P < 0.05), respectively. Six pathways were commonly involved in all tested samples. Moreover, many steps in the citrate cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) were affected, represented by down-regulated acetylation for relevant enzymes in the mid-early stage and up-regulated acetylation in the mid-late and late stages.Conclusion Our data here illustrated the changes in the global profiles for brain acetylated proteins during prion infection, showing remarkably inhibited acetylation in the early stage and relatively enhanced acetylation in the late stage.
Objective To recognize the spatial and temporal characteristics of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), China national IDD surveillance data for the years of 1995–2018 were analyzed. Methods Time series analysis was used to describe and predict the IDD related indicators, and spatial analysis was used to analyze the spatial distribution of salt iodine levels. Results In China, the median urinary iodine concentration increased in 1995–1997, then decreased to adequate levels, and are expected to remain appropriate in 2019–2022. The goiter rate continually decreased and is expected to be maintained at a low level. Since 2002, the coverage rates of iodized salt and the consumption rates of qualified iodized salt (the percentage of qualified iodized salt in all tested salt) increased and began to decline in 2012; they are expected to continue to decrease. Spatial epidemiological analysis indicated a positive spatial correlation in 2016–2018 and revealed feature regarding the spatial distribution of salt related indicators in coastal areas and areas near iodine-excess areas. Conclusions Iodine nutrition in China showed gradual improvements. However, a recent decline has been observed in some areas following changes in the iodized salt supply in China. In the future, more regulations regarding salt management should be issued to strengthen IDD control and prevention measures, and avoid the recurrence of IDD.