2021 Vol. 34, No. 7

2021, 34(7): 0-0.
2021, 34(7): 1-2.
Original Article
Alcohol Cessation in Late Life is Associated with Lower Risk of Cognitive Impairment among the Older Adults in China
ZHANG Xiao Chang, GAO Xiang, LYU Yue Bin, ZHOU Jin Hui, WEI Yuan, YIN Zhao Xue, MA Ji Xiang, MAO Chen, SHI Xiao Ming
2021, 34(7): 509-519. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.071
  Objective  Evidence regarding alcohol consumption and cognitive impairment is controversial. Whether cessation of drinking alcohol by non-dependent drinkers alters the risk of cognitive impairment remains unknown. This study prospectively evaluated the potential association between the history of lifetime alcohol cessation and risk of cognitive impairment.  Methods  This study included 15,758 participants age 65 years or older, selected from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) that covered 23 provinces in China. Current alcohol use status, duration of alcohol cessation, and alcohol consumption before abstinence were self-reported by participants; cognitive function was evaluated using Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Cause-specific hazard models and restricted cubic splines were applied to estimate the effect of alcohol use on cognitive impairment.  Results  Among the 15,758 participants, mean (± SD) age was 82.8 years (± 11.9 years), and 7,199 (45.7%) were males. During a mean of 3.9 years of follow-up, 3,404 cases were identified as cognitive impairment. Compared with current drinkers, alcohol cessation of five to nine years [adjusted HR, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.66–0.96)] and more than nine years [adjusted HR, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69–0.98)] were associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment.  Conclusion  A longer duration of alcohol cessation was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment assessed by MMSE. Alcohol cessation is never late for older adults to prevent cognitive impairment.
Exosomes Derived from Hydroquinone-transformed Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Inhibited Recipient Cell Apoptosis by transferring miR-221
XIAN Hong Yi, CHEN Ying, ZHANG Jia Ying, TANG Mei Lin, LIAN Zhen Wei, JIANG Ran, HU Zu Qing, LI Yan Feng, HU Da Lin
2021, 34(7): 520-527. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.072
  Objective  Although benzene is a confirmed environmental carcinogen, the mechanism of its carcinogenicity remains largely unclear. The suggested oncogene, miR-221, is elevated and plays important roles in various tumors, but its role in benzene-induced carcinogenesis remains unknown.  Methods  In the present study, we constructed hydroquinone (HQ, a representative metabolite of benzene with biological activity)-transformed malignant cell line (16HBE-t) and analyzed the level of miR-221 in it with qRT-PCR. Exosomes from 16HBE-t cells incubated with or without an miR-221 inhibitor were isolated by ultracentrifugation, characterized by transmission electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscope, and then transfected into 16HBE cells. The effects of exosomal miR-221 on apoptosis induced by HQ in recipient cells were determined using flow cytometry.  Results  The amount of miR-221 in 16HBE-t was significantly increased compared with controls. When recipient cells ingested exosomes derived from 16HBE-t, miR-221 was increased, and apoptosis induced by HQ was inhibited. Blocking miR-221 in 16HBE-t using an inhibitor did not significantly alter miR-221 or apoptosis in recipient cells.  Conclusion  Exosomal miR-221 secreted by 16HBE-t inhibits apoptosis induced by HQ in normal recipient cells.
Immunogenicity of Whole Mycobacterium intracellulare Proteins and Fingding on the Cross-Reactive Proteins between M. intracellulare and M. tuberculosis
XIAO Shi Qi, XU Da, DUAN Hong Yang, FAN Xue Ting, LI Gui Lian, ZHANG Wen, LI Ma Chao, HAN Na, LI Xin Yao, LI Na, ZHAO Li lan, ZHAO Xiu Qin, WAN Kang Lin, LIU Hai Can, FENG Wen Hai
2021, 34(7): 528-539. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.073
  Objectives  To evaluate the immunogenicity of Mycobacterium intracellulare proteins and determine the cross-reactive proteins between M. intracellulare and M. tuberculosis.  Methods  Protein extracts from M. intracellulare were used to immunize BALB/c mice. The antigens were evaluated using cellular and humoral immunoassays. The common genes between M. intracellular and M. tuberculosis were identified using genome-wide comparative analysis, and cross-reactive proteins were screened using immunoproteome microarrays.  Results  Immunization with M. intracellulare proteins induced significantly higher levels of the cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-12 (IL-12), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and immunoglobulins IgG, IgG1, IgM, and IgG2a in mouse serum. Bone marrow-derived macrophages isolated from mice immunized with M. intracellulare antigens displayed significantly lower bacillary loads than those isolated from mice immunized with adjuvants. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed 396 common genes between M. intracellulare and M. tuberculosis. Microchip hybridization with M. tuberculosis proteins revealed the presence of 478 proteins in the serum of mice immunized with M. intracellulare protein extracts. Sixty common antigens were found using both microchip and genomic comparative analyses.  Conclusion  This is the advanced study to investigate the immunogenicity of M. intracellulare proteins and the cross-reactive proteins between M. intracellulare and M. tuberculosis. The results revealed the presence of a number of cross-reactive proteins between M. intracellulare and M. tuberculosis. Therefore, this study provides a new way of identifying immunogenic proteins for use in tuberculosis vaccines against both M. intracellulare and M. tuberculosis in future.
Meso-scale Discovery Assay Detects the Changes of Plasma Cytokine Levels in Mice after Low or High LET Ionizing Irradiation
JIA Rong, CHEN Ya Xiong, DU Ya Rong, HU Bu Rong
2021, 34(7): 540-551. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.074
  Objective  To obtain precise data on the changes in the levels of 29 cytokines in mice after high or low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation and to develop an accurate model of radiation exposure based on the cytokine levels after irradiation.  Methods  Plasma samples harvested from mice at different time points after carbon-ion or X-ray irradiation were analyzed using meso-scale discovery (MSD), a high-throughput and sensitive electrochemiluminescence measurement technique. Dose estimation equations were set up using multiple linear regression analysis.  Results  The relative levels of IL-6 at 1 h, IL-5 and IL-6 at 24 h, and IL-5, IL-6 and IL-15 at 7 d after irradiation with two intensities increased dose-dependently. The minimum measured levels of IL-5, IL-6 and IL-15 were up to 4.0076 pg/mL, 16.4538 pg/mL and 0.4150 pg/mL, respectively. In addition, dose estimation models were established and verified.  Conclusions  The MSD assay can provide more accurate data regarding the changes in the levels of the cytokines IL-5, IL-6 and IL-15. These cytokines could meet the essential criteria for radiosensitive biomarkers and can be used as radiation indicators. Our prediction models can conveniently and accurately estimate the exposure dose in irradiated organism.
Letter to the Editor
Folate and Vitamin B12 Status and Related Dietary Factors among the Elderly Northern and Southern Rural Chinese Population
LIU Zhen, MAN Qing Qing, JIA Shan Shan, SONG Peng Kun, WANG Jing Zhong, WANG Xi Le, KANG Bing Xian, YANG Li Gui, ZHANG Jian
2021, 34(7): 552-556. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.075
Association between Hypertension with Hyperhomocysteinemia and Cognitive Impairment in the Kailuan Community of China: A Cross-sectional Study
CHEN Xue Yu, YANG Yao, TANG Zhao Yang, LYU Jian, SHI Feng Xue, CHEN Yan Ru, WANG Xiao Hui, TAN Tan, XING Wei Jia, HOU Hai Feng, JI Long, LI Xiao Dong, LI Dong
2021, 34(7): 557-561. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.076
Ambient Particulate Matter Pollution and Hospital Visits for Cardiac Arrhythmia in Beijing, China
WU Jun Hui, WU Yao, WANG Zi Jing, TIAN Yao Hua, WU Yi Qun, WU Tao, WANG Meng Ying, WANG Xiao Wen, WANG Jia Ting, HU Yong Hua
2021, 34(7): 562-566. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.077
Peripheral Blood Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Hypertension Combined with Albuminuria in Chinese Coal Miners
ZHANG Wen Ping, ZHANG Yi Fan, ZHANG Ying Ying, HAN Zhi Chao, GAO Yuan Yuan, GUO Jian Yong, SHI Xiu Jing, HU Xiao Qin, MU Li Na, ZHOU Yun, LEI Li Jian
2021, 34(7): 567-571. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.078
The rs2227481 C>T Polymorphism in the IL22 Gene Promoter Significantly Reduces the Risk of Liver, Lung, and Gastric Cancer in a Han Chinese Population
CHAI Long Long, XIAO Ying Xuan, MENG Ling Han, WANG Huan, FENG Xian Hong, GU Xiu Li, LI Qi Chang, XIONG Qian Tao, CHEN Bi Feng
2021, 34(7): 572-576. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.079
Association of miRNA-492 rs2289030 G>C and miRNA-938 rs2505901 T>C Gene Polymorphisms with Biliary Atresia Susceptibility
SU Liang, TIAN Yan, FU Ming, ZHANG Rui Zhong, OU Xiu Fei, XIA Hui Min, LI Rui Zhuo
2021, 34(7): 577-580. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.080
Molecular Detection of Tick-borne Pathogens in Ticks Collected from Hainan Island, China
LU Miao, TANG Guang Peng, BAI Xiao Song, QIN Xin Cheng, WANG Wen, GUO Wen Ping, LI Kun
2021, 34(7): 581-586. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.081
Pathogens like bacteria and protozoa, which affect human and animal health worldwide, can be transmitted by vectors like ticks. To investigate the epidemiology and genetic diversity of bacteria and protozoans carried by ticks in Chengmai county of Hainan province, China, 285 adult hard ticks belonging to two species [Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato): 183, 64.21% and Rhipicephalus microplus: 102, 35.79%] from dogs, cattle, and goats were collected. Microbial families were identified in these ticks by amplifying the 18S rRNA, 16S rRNA (rrs), citrate synthase (gltA), and heat shock protein (groEL) genes. Our data revealed the presence of four recognized species and two Candidatus spp. of Anaplasmataceae and Coxiellaceae. In sum, these data reveal an extensive diversity of Anaplasmataceae bacteria, Coxiellaceae bacteria, Babesiidae, and Hepatozoidae in ticks from Hainan Island, highlighting the need to understand the tick-borne pathogen infection in local animals and humans.
Subacute Toxicity of High-Dose Resveratrol and its Effect on Gut Microbiota in Healthy Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats
LU Wei, SONG Yan Hua, XIA Yong, ZHANG Shi Xin, YAN Jun, CAI De Lei, XU Cai Ju
2021, 34(7): 587-591. doi: 10.3967/bes2021.082