Objective This study aimed to assess the relationship between the body composition of children aged 3–5 years and breastfeeding status and duration.Methods The study was conducted using data from the National Nutrition and Health Systematic Survey for children 0–17 years of age in China (CNHSC), a nationwide cross-sectional study. Breastfeeding information and potential confounders were collected using standardized questionnaires administered through face-to-face interviews. The body composition of preschool children was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. A multivariate linear regression model was used to assess the relationship between breastfeeding duration and body composition after adjusting for potential confounders.Results In total, 2,008 participants were included in the study. Of these, 89.2% were ever breastfed and the median duration of breastfeeding was 12 months (IQR 7–15 months). Among children aged 3 years, the height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) for the ever breastfed group was lower than that for never breastfed group (0.12 vs. 0.42, P = 0.043). In addition, the weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) of the ever breastfed group was lower than that of the never breastfed group (0.31 vs. 0.65, P = 0.026), and the WAZ was lower in children aged 4 years who breastfed between 12 and 23 months than in those who never breastfed. Compared to the formula-fed children, the fat-free mass of breastfed infants was higher for children aged 3 years (12.84 kg vs. 12.52 kg, P = 0.015) and lower for those aged 4 years (14.31 kg vs. 14.64 kg, P = 0.048), but no difference was detected for children aged 5 years (16.40 kg vs. 16.42 kg, P = 0.910) after adjusting for potential confounders. No significant difference was detected in the weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ), body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-score (BAZ), fat-free mass index, and body fat indicators in the ever breastfed and never breastfed groups and among various breastfeeding duration groups for children aged 3–5 years.Conclusion No obvious associations were detected between breastfeeding duration, BMI, and fat mass indicators. Future prospective studies should explore the relationship between breastfeeding status and fat-free mass.
Objective To determine the thermic effect of food (TEF) in a Chinese mixed diet in young people.Methods During the study, the participants were weighed and examined for body composition every morning. The total energy expenditure (TEE) of the participants was measured by the doubly labeled water method for 7 days, and during this period, basal energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and physical activity energy expenditure was measured by an accelerometer. The value obtained by subtracting basal energy expenditure and physical activity energy expenditure from TEE was used to calculate TEF.Results Twenty healthy young students (18–30 years; 10 male) participated in the study. The energy intake of the participants was not significantly different from the Chinese Dietary Reference Intake of energy (P > 0.05). The percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrate were all in the normal range. The intakes of fruits, milk and dietary fiber of the participants were significantly lower than those in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the body weight of the participants during the experiment (P > 0.05). When adjusted for body weight, there was no significant difference in either TEE or basal energy expenditure between the male and female participants (P > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference in physical activity energy expenditure and TEF between the male and female participants (P > 0.05). The percentage of TEF in TEE was 8.73%.Conclusion The percentage of TEF in TEE in a Chinese mixed diet in young people was significantly lower than 10% (P < 0.001). A value of 10% is usually considered to be the TEF in mixed diets as a percentage of TEE.
Objective To improve the understanding of the virome and bacterial microbiome in the wildlife rescue station of Poyang Lake, China.Methods Ten smear samples were collected in March 2019. Metagenomic sequencing was performed to delineate bacterial and viral diversity. Taxonomic analysis was performed using the Kraken2 and Bracken methods. A maximum-likelihood tree was constructed based on the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region of picornavirus.Results We identified 363 bacterial and 6 viral families. A significant difference in microbial and viral abundance was found between samples S01–S09 and S10. In S01–S09, members of Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria were the most prevalent, while in S10, the most prevalent bacteria class was Actinomycetia. Among S01–S09, members of Myoviridae and Herelleviridae were the most prevalent, while the dominant virus family of S10 was Picornaviridae. The full genome of the pigeon mesivirus-like virus (NC-BM-233) was recovered from S10 and contained an open reading frame of 8,124 nt. It showed the best hit to the pigeon mesivirus 2 polyprotein, with 84.10% amino acid identity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RdRp clustered into Megrivirus B.Conclusion This study provides an initial assessment of the bacteria and viruses in the cage-smeared samples, broadens our knowledge of viral and bacterial diversity, and is a way to discover potential pathogens in wild birds
ObjectiveCampylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 is commonly used as a standard strain for flagellar biosynthesis research. In this report, two distinguished phenotypic isolates (CJ1Z, flhA mutant strain, lawn; CJ2S, flhA complemented strain, normal colony) appeared during laboratory passages for NCTC11168. Methods Phenotypic assessments, including motility plates, transmission electron microscopy, biofilm formation assay, autoagglutination assay, and genome re-sequencing for these two isolates (CJ1Z, flhA mutant strain; CJ2S, flhA complemented strain) were carried out in this study. Results Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the flagellum was lost in CJ1Z. Phenotypic assessments and genome sequencing of the two isolates were performed in this study. The capacity for biofilm formation, colony auto-agglutination, and isolate motility was reduced in the mutant CJ1Z. Comparative genomic analysis indicated a unique native nucleotide insertion in flhA (nt, 2154) that caused the I719Y and I720Y mutations and early truncation in flhA. Conclusion FlhA has been found to influence the expression of flagella in C. jejuni. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the function of the C-terminal of this protein.
Objective To investigate whether Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infection after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine could create a strong immunity barrier.Methods Blood samples were collected at two different time points from 124 Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infected patients and 124 controls matched for age, gender, and vaccination profile. Live virus-neutralizing antibodies against five SARS-CoV-2 variants, including WT, Gamma, Beta, Delta, and Omicron BA.1, and T-lymphocyte lymphocyte counts in both groups were measured and statistically analyzed.Results The neutralizing antibody titers against five different variants of SARS-CoV-2 were significantly increased in the vaccinated population infected with the Omicron BA.1 variant at 3 months after infection, but mainly increased the antibody level against the WT strain, and the antibody against the Omicron strain was the lowest. The neutralizing antibody level decreased rapidly 6 months after infection. The T-lymphocyte cell counts of patients with mild and moderate disease recovered at 3 months and completely returned to the normal state at 6 months.Conclusion Omicron BA.1 breakthrough infection mainly evoked humoral immune memory in the original strain after vaccination and hardly produced neutralizing antibodies specific to Omicron BA.1. Neutralizing antibodies against the different strains declined rapidly and showed features similar to those of influenza. Thus, T-lymphocytes may play an important role in recovery.
Objective We aimed to assess the feasibility and superiority of machine learning (ML) methods to predict the risk of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACEs) in chest pain patients with NSTE-ACS.Methods Enrolled chest pain patients were from two centers, Beijing Anzhen Emergency Chest Pain Center Beijing Bo’ai Hospital, China Rehabilitation Research Center. Five classifiers were used to develop ML models. Accuracy, Precision, Recall, F-Measure and AUC were used to assess the model performance and prediction effect compared with HEART risk scoring system. Ultimately, ML model constructed by Naïve Bayes was employed to predict the occurrence of MACEs.Results According to learning metrics, ML models constructed by different classifiers were superior over HEART (History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, & Troponin) scoring system when predicting acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and all-cause death. However, according to ROC curves and AUC, ML model constructed by different classifiers performed better than HEART scoring system only in prediction for AMI. Among the five ML algorithms, Linear support vector machine (SVC), Naïve Bayes and Logistic regression classifiers stood out with all Accuracy, Precision, Recall and F-Measure from 0.8 to 1.0 for predicting any event, AMI, revascularization and all-cause death (vs. HEART ≤ 0.78), with AUC from 0.88 to 0.98 for predicting any event, AMI and revascularization (vs. HEART ≤ 0.85). ML model developed by Naïve Bayes predicted that suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS), abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG), elevated hs-cTn I, sex and smoking were risk factors of MACEs.Conclusion Compared with HEART risk scoring system, the superiority of ML method was demonstrated when employing Linear SVC classifier, Naïve Bayes and Logistic. ML method could be a promising method to predict MACEs in chest pain patients with NSTE-ACS.