Objective Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is an important member of the IFITM family. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its antiviral action have not been completely elucidated. Recent studies on IFITM3, particularly those focused on innate antiviral defense mechanisms, have shown that IFITM3 affects the body’s adaptive immune response. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of IFITM3 proteins to immune control of influenza infection in vivo.Methods We performed proteomics, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry analysis and used bioinformatics tools to systematically compare and analyze the differences in natural killer (NK) cell numbers, their activation, and their immune function in the lungs of Ifitm3-/- and wild-type mice.ResultsIfitm3-/- mice developed more severe inflammation and apoptotic responses compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, the NK cell activation was higher in the lungs of Ifitm3-/- mice during acute influenza infection.Conclusions Based on our results, we speculate that the NK cells are more readily activated in the absence of IFITM3, increasing mortality in Ifitm3-/- mice.
Objective High PM2.5 concentration is the main feature of increasing haze in developing states, but information on its microbial composition remains very limited. This study aimed to determine the composition of microbiota in PM2.5 in Guangzhou, a city located in the tropics in China.Methods In Guangzhou, from March 5th to 10th, 2016, PM2.5 was collected in middle volume air samplers for 23 h daily. The 16S rDNA V4 region of the PM2.5 sample extracted DNA was investigated using high-throughput sequence.Results Among the Guangzhou samples, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria,and Actinobacteria were the dominant microbiota accounting for more than 90% of the total microbiota, and Stenotrophomonas was the dominant gram-negative bacteria, accounting for 21.30%–23.57%. We examined the difference in bacterial distribution of PM2.5 between Beijing and Guangzhou at the genus level; Stenotrophomonas was found in both studies, but Escherichia was only detected in Guangzhou.Conclusion In conclusion, the diversity and specificity of microbial components in Guangzhou PM2.5 were studied, which may provide a basis for future pathogenicity research in the tropics.
Objectives This paper aimed to investigate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and explore the associated risk factors in a very elderly southwest Chinese population.Methods From September 2015 to June 2016, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to obtain a representative sample of 1,326 participants over 80 years old living in Chengdu. The presence of DM was based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2-hPG) levels during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the potential associated factors.Results The participants’ mean age was 83.5 ± 3.1 years. The overall prevalence of DM was 27.4%. The prevalence was higher in males (30.2%) than females (24.7%) (P = 0.02). The prevalence of DM increased with body mass index (BMI) and decreased with aging. The multivariate analysis suggested that male sex (OR = 1.433; 95% CI, 1.116–1.843), hypertension (OR = 1.439; 95% CI, 1.079–1.936), overweight or obesity (OR = 1.371; 95% CI, 1.023–1.834), high heart rate (≥ 75 beats/min; OR = 1.362; 95% CI, 1.063–1.746), and abdominal obesity (OR = 1.615; 95% CI, 1.216–2.149) were all significantly positively correlated with DM. However, age was negatively correlated with DM (OR = 0.952; 95% CI, 0.916–0.989). Conclusions The prevalence of DM and newly diagnosed DM in a very elderly southwest Chinese population was high. OGTT screening should be performed regularly in people aged ≥ 80 years to ensure timely diagnosis of DM.
Objective To explore the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (Dex) against high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HK-2 cells and relevant mechanisms.Methods HK-2 cells were exposed to either glucose or glucose+Dex for 6 h. The production of ROS, morphology of HK-2 cells, and cell cycle were detected. Moreover, the expression of AKT, p-AKT, ERK, p-ERK, PI3K, E-Cadherin, Claudin-1, and α-SMA were determined and compared between HK-2 cells exposed to glucose and those exposed to both glucose and Dex with or without PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002 and ERK pathway inhibitor U0126. Results Compared with HK-2 cells exposed to high level of glucose, the HK-2 cells exposed to both high level of glucose and Dex showed: (1) lower level of ROS production; (2) cell morphology was complete; (3) more cells in G1 phase; (4) lower expression of p-AKT, p-ERK and α-SMA, higher expression of E-Cadherin and Claudin-1. PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 and ERK inhibitor U0126 decreased the expression of p-AKT, p-ERK and α-SMA, and increased the expression of E-Cadherin and Claudin-1.Conclusion Dex can attenuate high glucose-induced HK-2 epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inhibiting AKT and ERK.
Objective Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) has demonstrated efficacy in improving hearing levels of patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL); however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. HBOT alleviates the inflammatory response, which is mediated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. In this study we investigated whether HBOT attenuates inflammation in ISHHL patients via alteration of TLR4 and NF-κB expression.Methods ISHHL patients (n = 120) and healthy control subjects (n = 20) were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomly divided into medicine group treated with medicine only (n = 60) and HBO group receiving both HBOT and medicine (n = 60). Audiometric testing was performed pre- and post-treatment. TLR4, NF-кB, and TNF-α expression in peripheral blood of ISSHL patients and healthy control subjects was assessed by ELISA before and after treatment.Results TLR4, NF-κB, and TNF-α levels were upregulated in ISSHL patients relative to healthy control subjects; the levels were decreased following treatment and were lower in the HBO group than that in the medicine group post-treatment (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01).Conclusion HBOT alleviates hearing loss in ISSHL patients by suppressing the inflammatory response induced by TLR4 and NF-κB signaling.
Objective To observe the dynamic impacts of shock waves on the severity of lung injury in rats with different injury distances.Methods Simulate open-field shock waves; detect the biomechanical effects of explosion sources at distances of 40, 44, and 48 cm from rats; and examine the changes in the gross anatomy of the lungs, lung wet/dry weight ratio, hemoglobin concentration, blood gas analysis, and pathology.Results Biomechanical parameters such as the overpressure peak and impulse were gradually attenuated with an increase in the injury distance. The lung tissue hemorrhage, edema, oxygenation index, and pathology changed more significantly for the 40 cm group than for the 44 and 48 cm groups. The overpressure peak and impulse were significantly higher for the 40 cm group than for the 44 and 48 cm groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The animal mortality was significantly higher for the 40 cm group than for the other two groups (41.2% vs. 17.8% and 10.0%, P < 0.05). The healing time of injured lung tissues for the 40 cm group was longer than those for the 44 and 48 cm groups.Conclusions The effects of simulated open-field shock waves on the severity of lung injuries in rats were correlated with the injury distances, the peak overpressure, and the overpressure impulse.
Objective Moxifloxacin (MFX) shows good in vitro activity against Mycobacterium abscessus and can be a possible antibiotic therapy to treat M. abscessus infection; however, other studies have shown a lower or no activity. We aimed to evaluate MFX activity against M. abscessus using zebrafish (ZF) model in vivo.Methods A formulation of M. abscessus labeled with CM-Dil was micro-injected into ZF. Survival curves were determined by recording dead ZF every day. ZF were lysed, and colony-forming units (CFUs) were enumerated. Bacteria dissemination and fluorescence intensity in ZF were analyzed. Inhibition rates of MFX and azithromycin (AZM, positive control) were determined and compared.Results Significantly increased survival rate was observed with different AZM concentrations. However, increasing MFX concentration did not result in a significant decrease in ZF survival curve. No significant differences in bacterial burdens by CFU loads were observed between AZM and MFX groups at various concentrations. Bacterial fluorescence intensity in ZF was significantly correlated with AZM concentration. However, with increasing MFX concentration, fluorescence intensity decreased slightly when observed under fluorescence microscope. Transferring rates at various concentrations were comparable between the MFX and AZM groups, with no significant difference.Conclusion MFX showed limited efficacy against M. abscessusin vivo using ZF model. Its activity in vivo needs to be confirmed.
Objective Allocation of human resources to address inequalities in the public health system has increasingly attracted societal and political attention. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs) system of China as an example, we evaluated inequality in the public health workforce distribution across different regions in China between 2008 and 2017, with the aim of providing information for policymakers to support resource allocation and address growing health inequities.Methods We used three standard public health workforce inequality indices - Gini coefficient, Theil L, and Theil T - and spatial autocorrelation analysis to explore spatial clusters of the workforce in different provinces, visualized with geographical tools.Results The aggregate workforce-to-population ratio decreased from 1.47 to 1.42 per 10,000 population from 2008 to 2017, and was consistently lower than the National Health Commission's (NHC) recommended critical shortage threshold of 1.75. The workforce distribution inequality indices varied by regional socioeconomic and health system development. Geographic clustering of CDCs workforce distribution was evident, with H–H and L–L clusters in western China and the Guangdong-Fujian region, respectively.Conclusions Our study addressed key issues for government and policymakers in allocation of public health human resources. There is an urgent need for careful identification of analytic questions that will help carry out public health functions in the new era, alongside policy implications for an equitable distribution of the public health workforce focusing on the western region and low–low cluster areas.