2022, 35(7): 573-603.
In 2019, cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounted for 46.74% and 44.26% of all deaths in rural and urban areas, respectively. Two out of every five deaths were due to CVD. It is estimated that about 330 million patients suffer from CVD in China. The number of patients suffering from stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, pulmonary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease, lower extremity artery disease and hypertension are 13.00 million, 11.39 million, 8.90 million, 5.00 million, 4.87 million, 2.50 million, 2.00 million, 45.30 million, and 245.00 million, respectively. Given that China is challenged by the dual pressures of population aging and steady rise in the prevalence of metabolic risk factors, the burden caused by CVD will continue to increase, which has set new requirements for CVD prevention and treatment and the allocation of medical resources in China. It is important to reduce the prevalence through primary prevention, increase the allocation of medical resources for CVD emergency and critical care, and provide rehabilitation services and secondary prevention to reduce the risk of recurrence, re-hospitalization and disability in CVD survivors. The number of people suffering from hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes in China has reached hundreds of millions. Since blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose levels rise mostly insidiously, vascular disease or even serious events such as myocardial infarction and stroke often already occured at the time of detection in this population. Hence, more strategies and tasks should be taken to prevent risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, and more efforts should be made in the assessment of cardiovascular health status and the prevention, treatment, and research of early pathological changes.
2023, 36(8): 702-714.
Objective In developed countries, midday napping and nighttime sleep duration have been linked to long-term survival; however, little is known about such effects in less developed regions. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the associations of midday napping and nocturnal sleep with mortality in middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Methods A nationwide cohort of 15,524 adults aged ≥ 45 years was enrolled from 28 provincial regions across mainland China and followed up from 2011 to 2018, using data from the Chinese Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Midday napping and nighttime sleep duration were assessed using standardized questionnaires. Cox proportional hazards models with random intercepts for the surveyed provinces were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioral factors, and health status. Results A total of 1,745 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 7.1 years, and the mean (standard deviation) age was 59 (10.1) years at baseline. Compared with non-nappers, over 60 min nappers had a higher risk of all-cause mortality [HR: 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17–1.56], while no significant associations were observed among < 30 min nappers. Compared with sleep duration of 6–8 h/night, both short (< 6 h) and long (≥ 8 h) sleep duration were significantly associated with increased mortality, with corresponding HR (95% CI) estimates of 1.21 (1.05–1.38) and 1.26 (1.10–1.44), respectively. We observed significant patterns for greater risks associated with longer nap duration, with a Ptrend value < 0.001 for all-cause mortality. No significant evidence of an additive interaction was identified between midday napping and nighttime sleep. Conclusion Long midday napping and inappropriate nighttime sleep were independently associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in middle-aged and older Chinese populations. Biological studies are needed to validate our findings and clarify the mechanisms underlying this association.
2020, 33(11): 882-886.
2015, 28(1): 57-71.
2023, 36(8): 669-701.
In the past 30 years, the accessibility and quality index of medical care have made remarkable progress in China, ranking the first among middle-income countries. Many cardiovascular technologies are at or near the world's leading level, and significant progress has been achieved in China solving the problem of “treatment difficulty” of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). However, due to the prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles among Chinese residents, a huge population with CVD risk factors, accelerated population aging, and other reasons, the incidence and mortality rate of CVD are still increasing, and the turning point of the decline in disease burden has not appeared yet in China. In terms of proportions of disease mortality among urban and rural residents, CVD still ranks the first. In 2020, CVD accounted for 48.00% and 45.86% of the causes of death in rural and urban areas, respectively; two out of every five deaths were due to CVD. It is estimated that the number of current CVD patients in China is around 330 million, including 13 million stroke, 11.39 million coronary heart disease, 8.9 million heart failure, 5 million pulmonary heart disease, 4.87 million atrial fibrillation, 2.5 million rheumatic heart disease, 2 million congenital heart disease, 45.3 million peripheral artery disease, and 245 million hypertension cases. China has entered a new stage of transformation from high-speed development to high-quality development, and the prevention and control of CVD in China should also shift from previous emphasis on scale growth to strategies focusing more on strategic and key technological development in order to curb the trend of increasing incidence and mortality rates of CVD.
2019, 32(8): 559-570.
Objective To investigate the trends of lipid profiles and dyslipidemia among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Methods Data were collected from three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. Fasting venous blood samples were collected and serum lipids were tested by biochemical analysis and enzymatic determination. Lipid levels and the prevalence of dyslipidemia among adults were analyzed with complex sampling weighting adjustment for age and gender. Results The weighted means of TC, TG, and LDL-c significantly increased linearly from 3.93, 1.12, and 2.12 mmol/L in 2002 to 4.59, 1.41, and 2.78 mmol/L in 2010 and then to 4.63, 1.47, and 2.87 mmol/L in 2015, respectively; by contrast, HDL-c levels decreased significantly from 1.30 mmol/L to 1.26 mmol/L over the same period. Similar trends in mean non-HDL-c and lipid-related ratios were observed. The weighted dyslipidemia prevalence linearly increased; in particular, hypercholesterolemia increased from 1.6% to 5.6% and then to 5.8%, hypertriglyceridemia increased from 5.7% to 13.6% and then to 15.0%, low HDL-c increased from 18.8% to 35.5% and then to 24.9%, and high LDL-c increased from 1.3% to 5.6% and then to 7.2% (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusion Dyslipidemia increased among Chinese adults from 2002 to 2015. Development of a comprehensive strategy to decrease lipid levels in this population is urgently required.
2023, 36(8): 756-759.
2023, 36(8): 760-767.
2022, 35(9): 782-791.
Objective Preliminary assessment of rabies virus neutralizing activity, safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant human rabies antibody (NM57) compared with human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) in Chinese healthy adults. Methods Subjects were randomly (1:1:1) allocated to Groups A (20 IU/kg NM57), B (40 IU/kg NM57), or C (20 IU/kg HRIG). One injection was given on the day of enrollment. Blood samples were collected on days −7 to 0 (pre-injection), 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42. Adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were recorded over a period of 42 days after injection. Results All 60 subjects developed detectable rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs) (> 0.05 IU/mL) on days 3, 7, 14, 28, and 42. The RVNA levels peaked on day 3 in all three groups, with a geometric mean concentration (GMC) of 0.2139 IU/mL in Group A, 0.3660 IU/mL in Group B, and 0.1994 IU/mL in Group C. At each follow-up point, the GMC in Group B was significantly higher than that in Groups A and C. The areas under the antibody concentration curve over 0–14 days and 0–42 days in Group B were significantly larger than those in Groups A and C. Fifteen AEs were reported. Except for one grade 2 myalgia in Group C, the other 14 were all grade 1. No SAEs were observed. Conclusion The rabies virus neutralizing activity of 40 IU/kg NM57 was superior to that of 20 IU/kg NM57 and 20 IU/kg HRIG, and the rabies virus neutralizing activity of 20 IU/kg NM57 and 20 IU/kg HRIG were similar. Safety was comparable between NM57 and HRIG.
2023, 36(8): 779-782.
In August 2021, three students with diarrhea from the same school visited a local hospital in the S district of Beijing. An epidemic investigation showed that there were more students with diarrhea in the same school and they had one meal together. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from both patients with diarrhea and asymptomatic food handlers; however, the latter also carried Campylobacter coli. Phylogenomic analysis showed that there was a campylobacteriosis outbreak among the students, and the asymptomatic food handler may have been the source of the infection. Routine inspection and surveillance for Campylobacter is needed for the food producing staff, particularly those cooking in the cafeteria in schools or other public food services.
2023, 36(8): 732-742.
Objective To investigate the distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of causative microorganisms recovered from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs). Methods A total of 2,926 bacterial and fungal strains were identified in samples collected from 1,679 patients with IAIs at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between 2011 and 2021. Pathogenic bacteria and fungi were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the VITEK 2 compact system and the Kirby–Bauer method. AST results were interpreted based on the M100-Ed31 clinical breakpoints of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results Of the 2,926 strains identified, 49.2%, 40.8%, and 9.5% were gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, and fungi, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent pathogen in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients; however, a significant decrease was observed in the isolation of E. coli between 2011 and 2021. Specifically, significant decreases were observed between 2011 and 2021 in the levels of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli (from 76.9% to 14.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (from 45.8% to 4.8%). Polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving co-infection with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, were commonly observed in IAI patients. Moreover, Candida albicans was more commonly isolated from hospital-associated IAI samples, while Staphylococcus epidermidis had a higher ratio in community-associated IAIs. Additionally, AST results revealed that most antimicrobial agents performed better in non-ESBL-producers than in ESBL-producers, while the overall resistance rates (56.9%–76.8%) of Acinetobacter baumanmii were higher against all antimicrobial agents than those of other common gram-negative bacteria. Indeed, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus were consistently found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid. Similarly, C. albicans exhibited high susceptibility to all the tested antifungal drugs. Conclusion The distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of the causative microorganisms from patients with IAIs were altered between 2011 and 2021. This finding is valuable for the implementation of evidence-based antimicrobial therapy and provides guidance for the control of hospital infections.
2022, 35(5): 381-392.
Abstract: Infectious diseases are an enormous public health burden and a growing threat to human health worldwide. Emerging or classic recurrent pathogens, or pathogens with resistant traits, challenge our ability to diagnose and control infectious diseases. Nanopore sequencing technology has the potential to enhance our ability to diagnose, interrogate, and track infectious diseases due to the unrestricted read length and system portability. This review focuses on the application of nanopore sequencing technology in the clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases and includes the following: (i) a brief introduction to nanopore sequencing technology and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing platforms; (ii) strategies for nanopore-based sequencing technologies; and (iii) applications of nanopore sequencing technology in monitoring emerging pathogenic microorganisms, molecular detection of clinically relevant drug-resistance genes, and characterization of disease-related microbial communities. Finally, we discuss the current challenges, potential opportunities, and future outlook for applying nanopore sequencing technology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.
2020, 33(1): 1-10.
Objective To estimate the burden of cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases caused by specific etiologies in China. Methods Data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016) were used. We evaluated the burden by analyzing age-sex-province-specific prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) of 33 provinces in China. Results From 1990 to 2016, prevalence cases in thousands increased by 73.7% from 6833.3 (95% UI: 6498.0–7180.6) to 11869.6 (95% UI: 11274.6–12504.7). Age-standardized mortality and DALY rates per 100,000 decreased by 51.2% and 53.3%, respectively. Male and elderly people (aged ≥ 60 years) preponderance were found for prevalence, mortality, and DALYs. The number of prevalence cases, deaths, and DALYs due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) increased by 86.6%, 8.7%, and 0.9%, respectively. Also, age-standardized prevalence rates decreased in 31 provinces, but increased in Yunnan and Shandong. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) values were negatively correlated with age-standardized mortality and DALY rates by provinces in 2016; the correlation coefficients were −0.817 and −0.828, respectively. Conclusion Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases remain a huge health burden in China, with the increase of population and the aging of population. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains the leading cause of the health burden in China.
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2022, 35(7): 648-651.
2023, 36(8): 768-772.
2023, 36(1): 24-37.
Objective To analyze the association between exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) and 23 diseases, categorized into four classifications, among the Chinese population. Methods We searched the literature up to June 30, 2021, and eligible studies were identified according to the PECOS format: Participants and Competitors (Chinese population), Exposure (SHS), Outcomes (Disease or Death), and Study design (Case-control or Cohort). Results In total, 53 studies were selected. The odds ratio (OR) for all types of cancer was 1.79 (1.56–2.05), and for individual cancers was 1.92 (1.42–2.59) for lung cancer, 1.57 (1.40–1.76) for breast cancer, 1.52 (1.12–2.05) for bladder cancer, and 1.37 (1.08–1.73) for liver cancer. The OR for circulatory system diseases was 1.92 (1.29–2.85), with a value of 2.29 (1.26–4.159) for stroke. The OR of respiratory system diseases was 1.76 (1.13–2.74), with a value of 1.82 (1.07–3.11) for childhood asthma. The original ORs were also shown for other diseases. Subgroup analyses were performed for lung and breast cancer. The ORs varied according to time period and were significant during exposure in the household; For lung cancer, the OR was significant in women. Conclusion The effect of SHS exposure in China was similar to that in Western countries, but its definition and characterization require further clarification. Studies on the association between SHS exposure and certain diseases with high incidence rates are insufficient.
2023, 36(8): 773-778.
2023, 36(7): 569-584.
Objective This study aimed to assess the relationship between the body composition of children aged 3–5 years and breastfeeding status and duration. Methods The study was conducted using data from the National Nutrition and Health Systematic Survey for children 0–17 years of age in China (CNHSC), a nationwide cross-sectional study. Breastfeeding information and potential confounders were collected using standardized questionnaires administered through face-to-face interviews. The body composition of preschool children was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. A multivariate linear regression model was used to assess the relationship between breastfeeding duration and body composition after adjusting for potential confounders. Results In total, 2,008 participants were included in the study. Of these, 89.2% were ever breastfed and the median duration of breastfeeding was 12 months (IQR 7–15 months). Among children aged 3 years, the height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) for the ever breastfed group was lower than that for never breastfed group (0.12 vs. 0.42, P = 0.043). In addition, the weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) of the ever breastfed group was lower than that of the never breastfed group (0.31 vs. 0.65, P = 0.026), and the WAZ was lower in children aged 4 years who breastfed between 12 and 23 months than in those who never breastfed. Compared to the formula-fed children, the fat-free mass of breastfed infants was higher for children aged 3 years (12.84 kg vs. 12.52 kg, P = 0.015) and lower for those aged 4 years (14.31 kg vs. 14.64 kg, P = 0.048), but no difference was detected for children aged 5 years (16.40 kg vs. 16.42 kg, P = 0.910) after adjusting for potential confounders. No significant difference was detected in the weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ), body mass index (BMI)-for-age Z-score (BAZ), fat-free mass index, and body fat indicators in the ever breastfed and never breastfed groups and among various breastfeeding duration groups for children aged 3–5 years. Conclusion No obvious associations were detected between breastfeeding duration, BMI, and fat mass indicators. Future prospective studies should explore the relationship between breastfeeding status and fat-free mass.
2023, 36(4): 353-366.
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a mindfulness-based psychosomatic intervention on depression, anxiety, fear of childbirth (FOC), and life satisfaction of pregnant women in China. Methods Women experiencing first-time pregnancy (n = 104) were randomly allocated to the intervention group or a parallel active control group. We collected data at baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1), 3 days after delivery (T2), and 42 days after delivery (T3). The participants completed questionnaires for the assessment of the levels of depression, anxiety, FOC, life satisfaction, and mindfulness. Differences between the two groups and changes within the same group were analyzed at four time points using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results Compared with the active control group, the intervention group reported lower depression levels at T2 (P = 0.038) and T3 (P = 0.013); reduced anxiety at T1 (P = 0.001) and T2 (P = 0.003); reduced FOC at T1 (P < 0.001) and T2 (P = 0.04); increased life satisfaction at T1 (P < 0.001) and T3 (P = 0.015); and increased mindfulness at T1 (P = 0.01) and T2 (P = 0.006). Conclusion The mindfulness-based psychosomatic intervention effectively increased life satisfaction and reduced perinatal depression, anxiety, and FOC.